AQA AS Biology Unit 2: Plant Cell Structure

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  • Created on: 22-08-13 17:13
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Plant Cell Structure
Plant cells are eukaryotic cells.
They have a distinct nucleus and membrane bound organelles, such as mitochondria and
Leaf Palisade Cell
The leaf palisade cell is a typical plant cell.
Its function is to carry out photosynthesis.
Main features:
Feature Explanation
Long, thin cells Form a continuous layer to absorb sunlight
Chloroplasts Numerous chloroplasts that arrange
themselves in the best position to collect the
maximum amount of light
Large vacuole Pushed the cytoplasm and chloroplasts to
the edge of the cell
Allows the chloroplasts to be closest to the

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A chloroplast is a double membraned organelle.
They vary in shape and size but are typically disc-shaped.…read more

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Cell Wall
Characteristic of all plant cells, the cell wall consists of microfibrils of the polysaccharide
cellulose, embedded in a matrix.
Cellulose microfibrils have considerable strength and so contribute to the overall strength of
the cell wall.…read more

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Differences between Animal and Plant Cells
Animal Cell Plant Cell
No cell wall Cell wall made of cellulose
Only a cell-surface membrane
surrounds the cell
Round irregular shape Fixed rectangular shape
No chloroplasts present Chloroplasts present in large numbers
If vacuoles are present they are Normally have a large, single, central
small and scattered throughout vacuole filled with cell sap
the cell
Glycogen granules are used for Starch grains are used for carbohydrate
carbohydrate storage storage…read more

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Root Hair Cell
The root hair cell is a specialised plant cell.
Each root hair is an extension of a root epidermal cell.
Root hairs are the exchange surfaces in plants that are responsible for the absorption of
water and mineral ions.
These root hairs remain functional for a few weeks before dying back, to be replaced by
others nearer the growing tip.
Root hairs absorb water by the process of osmosis.
The soil solution surrounds the particles that make up soil.…read more

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Xylem Vessel
In flowering plants, xylem vessels are the structures through which the vast majority of
water is transported.
Xylem vessels have thick cell walls.
These vessels vary in appearance, depending on the type and amount of thickening of their
cell walls.
As they mature, their walls incorporate a substance called lignin and the cells die.
The lignin makes the cell wall impermeable so they are in effect waterproof.
It also makes the vessels extremely strong and prevents them from collapsing.…read more


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