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Plant Cell Structure
Plant cells are eukaryotic cells.

They have a distinct nucleus and membrane bound organelles, such as mitochondria and
chloroplasts.




Leaf Palisade Cell
The leaf palisade cell is a typical plant cell.

Its function is to carry out photosynthesis.

Main features:

Feature Explanation
Long, thin cells Form a…

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Chloroplast
A chloroplast is a double membraned organelle.

They vary in shape and size but are typically disc-shaped.


Main features:

Feature Explanation
Chloroplast envelope A double plasma membrane
Surrounds the organelle
Highly selective in what it allows to enter and leave
the chloroplast

Thylakoids Disc like structures
Contain the pigment…

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Cell Wall
Characteristic of all plant cells, the cell wall consists of microfibrils of the polysaccharide
cellulose, embedded in a matrix.

Cellulose microfibrils have considerable strength and so contribute to the overall strength of
the cell wall.



Main features:

Feature Explanation
Polysaccharides They consist of a number of polysaccharides,
such…

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Differences between Animal and Plant Cells


Animal Cell Plant Cell
No cell wall Cell wall made of cellulose
Only a cell-surface membrane
surrounds the cell

Round irregular shape Fixed rectangular shape

No chloroplasts present Chloroplasts present in large numbers

If vacuoles are present they are Normally have a large, single,…

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Root Hair Cell
The root hair cell is a specialised plant cell.

Each root hair is an extension of a root epidermal cell.

Root hairs are the exchange surfaces in plants that are responsible for the absorption of
water and mineral ions.

These root hairs remain functional for a few…

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Xylem Vessel
In flowering plants, xylem vessels are the structures through which the vast majority of
water is transported.

Xylem vessels have thick cell walls.

These vessels vary in appearance, depending on the type and amount of thickening of their
cell walls.

As they mature, their walls incorporate a substance…

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