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Classification The organisation of living organisms into groups
based on a number of accepted principles

A species is the basic unit of classification.

Members of a single species have certain things in common:

They are similar to one another but They have very similar genes and therefore

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Naming a Species ­ the Binomial System
Organisms are identified by two names and hence the system is called the binomial system.

Its features are as follows:

It is a universal system based upon Greek or Latin names

The first name, called the generic name, denotes the genus to which…

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The Principals of Classification
The grouping of organisms is known as classification, while the theory and practice of
biological classification is called taxonomy.

There are two main forms of biological classification:

Artificial Classification Divides organisms according to differences that are
useful at the time

Such features may include colour, size,…

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Taxonomy is the science of classification.

It involves naming organisms and organising them into groups based on their similarities
and differences.

Each group within a biological classification is called a taxon.

Taxonomy is the study of these groups and their positions in a hierarchical order, where
they are known…

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The evolutionary relationship between organisms is known as phylogeny.

The term is derived from the word phylum, which, in classification, is a group of related or
similar organisms.

The phylogeny of an organism reflects the evolutionary branch that led up to it.

The phylogenetic relationships of different species are…

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Difficulties of Defining Species
A species may be defined in terms of observable similarities and the ability to produce
fertile offspring.

There are, however, certain difficulties with this definition.

These include:

Species are not fixed forever, but change and evolve over time
In time, some individuals may develop into a…


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