Classification - Chapter 14 AQA AS Biology

Chapter 11 - AQA AS Biology

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  • Created by: H.N
  • Created on: 30-12-12 19:18
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  • Classification
    • species
      • basic unit of classification
      • similar to each other but different from members of other species
      • occupy the same ecological niche
      • capable of breeding + producing  living, fertile offspring
      • belong to the same gene pool
    • The Bionomial (naming) system
      • universal, based upon Latin/Greek names
      • 1st name = generic name, denotes the GENUS to which the organism belongs
        • 1st letter - uppercase
      • 2nd name= specific name, denotes the SPECIES to which the organism belongs
        • if isn't known can be written as 'sp'
        • 1st letter - lowercase
    • biological classification
      • Artificial classification
        • divides organisms according to differences useful at the time
        • analogous characteristics - same function but different evolutionary origins
      • Natural classification
        • based upon evolutionary relationships between organisms and their ancestors
        • based on homologous characteristics - have similar evolutionary origins, regardless of their functions in the adult of a species
        • arranges groups into a hierarchy
        • classifies species into groups using shared features derived from ancestors
    • Taxonomy
      • Taxonomy = study of each group within a natural biological classification and  their position within a hierarchical order
      • taxonomical ranks
        • way of remembering: King Prawn Curry Or Fat Greasy Sausages
          • Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species
    • Phylogeny
      • phylogeny = evolutionary relationship between organisms
      • usually represented on a phylogenic tree
        • oldest species - at the base
        • most recent species - ends of the branches
    • Classification = the organisation of living organisms into groups
  • printed in italics, or underlined if handwritten - to show specific names
    • 2nd name= specific name, denotes the SPECIES to which the organism belongs
      • if isn't known can be written as 'sp'
      • 1st letter - lowercase

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