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4.1 Why Gas-Exchange?
All aerobic organisms require a constant supply of oxygen to release
energy in the form of ATP during respiration.
The CO2 produced in the process needs to be removed
Build up of CO2 is harmful to the body.
The volume of O2 absorbed and the volume of CO2 removed is large
in mammals. This is because:
1. They are relatively large organisms with a large volume of living cells.
2. They maintain a high body temperature therefore have high
metabolic and respiratory rates.
Mammals have evolves specialised surfaces, called lungs, to ensure
efficient gas-exchange between the air and their blood.…read more

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4.1 Mammalian Lungs
The lungs are internal (inside the body). This is because:
The air is not dense enough to support and protect these delicate
They would otherwise lose a great deal of water and dry out.
The lungs are supported and protected by a bony box called the rib
Movement allows ventilation by a tidal stream of air ensuring that
the air within them is constantly replenished.…read more

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4.1 Trachea
Flexible airway
Supported by rings or cartilage
Prevents collapsing (air pressure falls when breathing)
Tracheal walls ­ muscle lined with ciliated epithelium and goblet
Goblet cells ­ produce mucus ­ trap dirt and bacteria
Cilia moves mucus up the throat then down oesophagus into the
stomach.…read more

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4.1 Bronchi
2 divisions of trachea leading to each lungs.
Similar structure to the trachea.
Produce mucus and have cilia.
Larger bronchi are supported by cartilage ­ reduced amount of
cartilage as it gets smaller.…read more

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This is soooooo usefull!! thank you soo much. Do you have any powepoints on Hear and Heart Disease ?

I love the way you write the whole book in quick, short snappy notes.


A concise summary of the lungs and diseases topic that is found in The AQA AS  specification but could also be useful for any student needing to study the lungs as part of their specification. The author usefully suggests that they can be printed out two slides to a page and then used to make revision cards and this seems like a great idea.

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