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Mark schemes are prepared by the Principal Examiner and considered, together with the relevant
questions, by a panel of subject teachers. This mark scheme includes any amendments made at the
standardisation events, which all examiners participate in and is the scheme, which was used by them
in this examination. The standardisation process ensures that the mark scheme covers the
candidates' responses to questions and that every examiner understands and applies it in the same
correct way.…read more

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Mark Scheme ­ General Certificate of Education (A-level) Biology ­ Unit 2: The Variety of Living
Organisms ­ June 2012
Question Marking Guidelines Marks Comments
1(a)(i) Diffusion; 1 Ignore references to
structures, membrane
components etc
Allow simple diffusion
Reject facilitated diffusion
1(a)(ii) 1. (Thin / flat body) so short distance 2 Ignore references to
for diffusion / short diffusion membrane, wall, body
pathway; surface
2.…read more

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Mark Scheme ­ General Certificate of Education (A-level) Biology ­ Unit 2: The Variety of Living
Organisms ­ June 2012
Question Marking Guidelines Marks Comments
2(a) 2 of the following pairs: 4 max Mark for explanation must be
paired with correct change in
1. Larger leaves;
structure
2. Photosynthesis;
Accept converse descriptions
OR
of leaves, root and stem:
3. Larger/bigger/thicker root; longer root, taller stem,
4. Storage; smaller leaves
OR
5. Stem shorter / absent; Accept converse correct
6.…read more

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Mark Scheme ­ General Certificate of Education (A-level) Biology ­ Unit 2: The Variety of Living
Organisms ­ June 2012
Question Marking Guidelines Marks Comments
3(a)(i) /Beta glucose; 1 Accept b / B
Reject any reference
to alpha/
3(a)(ii) Glycosidic; 1 Reject references to
(1-4) glycosidic
bond, but allow beta
1-4, or unspecified
reference to 1-4 (1,4)
3(a)(iii) OH / hydroxyl / HO; 1 Reject hydroxide
Reject OH/HO
molecule
Ignore alcohol
3(b)(i) Starch Cellulose 2 max
1. (1,4 and) 1,6 1.…read more

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Mark Scheme ­ General Certificate of Education (A-level) Biology ­ Unit 2: The Variety of Living
Organisms ­ June 2012
Question Marking Guidelines Marks Comments
4(a) 1. Growth / increase in cell number; 2 max Ignore growth of cells
2. Replace cells / repair tissue / organs Ignore repair cells
/body;
Reject bacteria
3. Genetically identical cells;
3. 'Produces 2 genetically
4. Asexual reproduction /cloning; identical cells' does not
reach MP1 as well as MP3
4.…read more

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Mark Scheme ­ General Certificate of Education (A-level) Biology ­ Unit 2: The Variety of Living
Organisms ­ June 2012
Question Marking Guidelines Marks Comments
5(a)(i) Repeating units / nucleotides / monomer 1 Allow more than one, but
/molecules; reject two
5(a)(ii) 1. C = hydrogen bonds; 3
2. D = deoxyribose; 2. Ignore sugar
3. E = phosphate; 3.…read more

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Mark Scheme ­ General Certificate of Education (A-level) Biology ­ Unit 2: The Variety of Living
Organisms ­ June 2012
Question Marking Guidelines Marks Comments
6(a)(i) Kingdom / phylum / class; 1 Accept Animalia /animal
kingdom / Chordata /
Chordates / Aves
Allow phonetic spelling
6(a)(ii) Family; 1
6(b)(i) 1. Shows the spread of the data / how 2 max 1. Reject range.
data varies; Accept varies from the
mean
2. Overlap = no difference / due to
2.…read more

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Mark Scheme ­ General Certificate of Education (A-level) Biology ­ Unit 2: The Variety of Living
Organisms ­ June 2012
Question Marking Guidelines Marks Comments
7(a) Removes bias; 1
7(b)(i) 1. 1.28 / 1.29 / 1.285 / 1.3;; 2 1. Ignore more than 3dp
2. Answer incorrect but shows clear 2. = 318250. Allow mark if
understanding of ; denominator written out.…read more

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Mark Scheme ­ General Certificate of Education (A-level) Biology ­ Unit 2: The Variety of Living
Organisms ­ June 2012
Question Marking Guidelines Marks Comments
8(a)(i) 1. Stomata open; 3 max Allow converse
2. Transpiration highest around mid-
day;
3. Middle of day warmer / lighter;
3. Allow 'Sun is at it's hottest'
4. (Increased) tension / water
Ignore 'pull, suck'
potential gradient;
Reject increased cohesion in the
5.…read more

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