AQA Additional science, Biology

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Biology
Activation energy is the energy that must be provided to the reactants to start a chemical
reaction.
Aerobic respiration occurs when oxygen reacts with glucose and releases energy. Carbon
dioxide and water are the products of the reaction.
Amino acids are molecules that can be combined in long chains to form proteins.
Amylase is the digestive enzyme that breaks down starch into glucose and fructose.
Bile is a substance produced by the liver and released during digestion into the small intestine
to provide alkaline conditions. Bile also reduces the size of the fatty droplets, making them
easier to digest.
Carbohydrase enzymes break down complex carbohydrate molecules such as starch into
simple sugars.
Carbon cycle is a description of how carbon atoms circulate through carbon compounds in
living organisms to carbon dioxide in the air and back again.
Chromosomes are molecules of DNA found in cells. A single chromosome is made up of a
single strand of DNA.
Concentration is the amount of one substance in a given volume of another.
Chloroplasts use light energy to make glucose and oxygen from carbon dioxide and water by
photosynthesis. They are found only in some plant cells.
Cystic fibrosis is a disease that affects membranes of cells that line the lungs, gut and
reproductive tracts. It is caused by a recessive allele and therefore has symptomless carriers.
Denatured when temperature destroys the threedimensional shape of a protein molecule or
enzyme.
Differentiation is the process by which an unspecialised early embryonic cell acquires the
features of a specialised cell.
Diffusion is the movement of particles in a gas or any substance from a region of higher
concentration to a region of lower concentration.
DNA deoxyribonucleic acid, is a longchain molecule, made up from a series of bases.
DNA fingerprinting is a technique that uses the noncoding pieces of our DNA to provide a
unique identification DNA sequence.
Efficiency of energy transfer is the percentage of the energy that is passed on to the next
organism in the chain and is not lost.
Enzymes are the biological molecules that catalyse reactions in living organisms.
Gametes are sex cells.

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Gene is a length of DNA that codes for a specific protein.
Gland is an organ that produces and releases or secretes a substance used by other cells.
Homeostasis is the maintenance of steady conditions within the body, including water content,
blood glucose concentration and body temperature.
Huntington's disease is an inherited disease that affects the nervous system. It is caused by
a dominant allele.
Insulin is a hormone that causes glucose to be moved from the blood into liver and muscle
cells.…read more

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Pyramid of energy is a diagram that illustrates quantitatively the decrease in the energy
contained in biomass in each level of a food chain/
Rate of photosynthesis is the speed at which the photosynthesis reaction takes place. It can
be measured as the rate of formation of oxygen.
Ribosomes put amino acids into the correct order to a make a specific protein.
Stomata are the tiny openings in the surface of a leaf through which gases can pass by
diffusion.…read more

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