Approaches - Cognitive - Concept of Information Processing and How This Applies to Human Behaviour and Thought

cognitive approach - concept of information processing and how it applies to human behaviour and thought

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  • Created on: 17-06-12 14:37
Preview of Approaches - Cognitive - Concept of Information Processing and How This Applies to Human Behaviour and Thought

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Concept of information processing and how this applies to human
behaviour and thought
`Information processing models are based on assumptions about the flow of information through a
system; usually best realised in the form of a computer program.
Cognitive processes: memory, thinking, reasoning etc
1. Attention: the tendency of an organism to focus on selected features of the environment
a. Focused attention: you are able to process information on one stimulus from the
environment
b. Divided attention: having a conversation whilst driving is easier for experienced
drivers. Even experienced drivers struggle to process information when the inputs
become more challenging
c. Cocktail party effect: supports the idea that all information inputs are processes, but
rejected information is processed in a weakened form (not lost as proposed in
earlier models)
2. Memory: psychology often uses models to explain cognitive processes such as memory
a. Levels of processing model of memory (Craik and Lockhart ­ 1972) : recall of
memories depends of the depth of processing
3. Problem solving: an area of cognitive psychology that is concerned with the processes
involved when humans attempt to solve problems
a. Functional fixedness and insight learning
4. Perception: refers to the processes that give coherence and unity to sensory input
a. Top down processing ­ the knowledge and expectations one holds influence what
we see

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