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Page 1

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GCSE COASTAL LANDSCAPES & PROCESSES
ANSWERS TO QUESTION 1

(a) (i) A: Arch
B: Original land-surface
C: Stack
D: Stump
E: Wave-cut platform 5x1

(ii) Site 3 1

(b) (i) Uses which people may make of this coastline:
* fishing - commercial or recreational
* quarrying/mining - extraction of sand…

Page 2

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(c) (iv)
River
estuary Mainland
Mainland




fastest cu
ina
orig l coastline

C




rre
Saltmarsh/mud




nt
B B
D
beach
longshore drift
Hooked/recurved
attached to end to spit ends
earlier hooked/
A mainland in open sea
low ridge of recurved ends
Prevailing winds deposited sand
and waves
Short term change…

Page 3

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GCSE COASTAL LANDSCAPES & PROCESSES
ANSWERS TO QUESTION 2

(a) (i) Coastal erosion:
* the break down/wearing away of coastal rocks/landscapes
* removal/transportation by waves and currents
* includes hydraulic action, corrasion (abrasion), corrosion, attrition

(ii) Coastal deposition:
* the laying down of previously eroded material
* by waves and…

Page 4

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(g) The advantages of coastal protection to the hotel owner:
* reduces/slows coastal retreat
* improves safety of him/her guests
* prolongs his/her business/safeguards (future) investment

The disadvantages of coastal protection to the hotel owner:
* coastal protection schemes can be unsightly - reduces visitor numbers/income
* construction is prolonged…

Page 5

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GCSE COASTAL LANDSCAPES & PROCESSES
ANSWERS TO QUESTION 3

(a) A marina is a harbour for pleasure boats (i.e. not for commercial ships). 1

(b) (i) The beach has been eroded/deteriorated/contracted. 1

(ii) The large groyne was constructed:
* to provide a breakwater for the marina (calm water for boarding/loading/maintenance)…

Page 6

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(g) (i) Isle of Thanet coastline is developed and so/or spoilt.
Pegwell and Sandwich Bays are unspoilt/undeveloped coastal areas.
South-east Essex is worthy of protection (despite being partially developed). 3x1

(ii) Isle of Thanet:
* spoilt by overdevelopment
* e.g. expansion of holiday resorts to form a linear/coastal `conurbation' between…

Page 7

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GCSE COASTAL LANDSCAPES & PROCESSES
ANSWERS TO QUESTION 4

(a) (i) * Bridlington
* Hornsea 2x1

(ii) * Auburn
* Hornsea Beck
* Ravenser Odd
Any two. 2x1

(iii) * Keyingham
* Patrington
Either answer. 1

(iv) Tharlesthorpe 1

(b) (i) Since the Roman times, the coastline has changed in…

Page 8

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(c) (ii) (continued)
Major features of eroding (aggrading) headlands.

blowhole original cliff line


collapsed
roof
stack
crack


arch
cave

HWM
wave cut stump
notch LWM
wave-cut platform 6x1

(d) Examples could include:
* Flamborough Head, East Yorkshire
* Lyme Bay, South Devon and Dorset
* Milford Haven, Dyfed, south-west Wales…

Page 9

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GCSE COASTAL LANDSCAPES & PROCESSES
ANSWERS TO QUESTION 5

(a) (i) 1. beach
2. arch
3. stack
4. spit 4x1

(ii) 1. Beach:
* headland eroding to form a bay
* pebbles and sand transported by waves
* in shelter/calmer water of bay material is deposited on a wave-cut platform…

Page 10

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(c) The process is called longshore drift (L.S.D.):
* occurs when waves break at oblique angle to the shoreline - due to prevailing wind
* (kinetic energy of ) swash pushes sediment up and along beach at an angle (e.g. 45°)
* but backwash drags sediment straight down the beach…

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