Answer to the coastal questions

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GCSE COASTAL LANDSCAPES & PROCESSES
ANSWERS TO QUESTION 1
(a) (i) A: Arch
B: Original land-surface
C: Stack
D: Stump
E: Wave-cut platform 5x1
(ii) Site 3 1
(b) (i) Uses which people may make of this coastline:
* fishing - commercial or recreational
* quarrying/mining - extraction of sand and gravel (aggregates) or submarine coal mining, e.g.
north-east England
* tourism - beach activities, e.g. sunbathing, swimming, etc.
* Ministry of Defence training
* conservation, e.g. heritage coast/SSSI
* flood defence - prevent incursion of sea water
Any three - accept only one reference to tourism 3x1
(ii) The problems caused by people using the coastline include:
* depletion of fish stocks: affects food chain, trawling damages sea bed
* habitat destruction: dredging of gravel/sand damages sea bed/beaches, noise, dust, damage to
scenery = visual pollution
* litter, noise, Bank Holiday overcrowding, conflicts with residents, disposal of sewage (until
recent changes in legislation)
* noise, reduced access 4x1
(c) (i) Headlands and bays have been formed on the coastline in Figure 2 because:
* coastline is composed of varied rock types
* some resistant to erosion but others are not
* e.g. hard limestone forms headlands while soft sandstone forms bays
* called differential erosion
* areas of erosion provide sediment for deposition elsewhere
* direction of prevailing wave may vary
* so longshore drift (L.S.D.) not active along whole coastline
Any four. 4x1
(ii) Groynes have been built in Bay 2 because:
* longshore drift (L.S.D.)
* groynes prevent removal of sand/destruction of beach (by L.S.D.)
* maintains tourist facility/tourism 3x1
(iii) Spit, e.g. Spurn Head, East Yorkshire or Blakeney Point, Norfolk 1

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River
estuary Mainland
Mainland
fastest cu
ina
orig l coastline
C
rre
Saltmarsh/mud
nt
B B
D
beach
longshore drift
Hooked/recurved
attached to end to spit ends
earlier hooked/
A mainland in open sea
low ridge of recurved ends
Prevailing winds deposited sand
and waves
Short term change
in wind and wave
Felch
direction
6x1
(d) (i) The beach may have been formed by the following:
* headland eroding to form a bay
* pebbles and sand transported by waves
* in shelter/calmer water of…read more

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GCSE COASTAL LANDSCAPES & PROCESSES
ANSWERS TO QUESTION 2
(a) (i) Coastal erosion:
* the break down/wearing away of coastal rocks/landscapes
* removal/transportation by waves and currents
* includes hydraulic action, corrasion (abrasion), corrosion, attrition
(ii) Coastal deposition:
* the laying down of previously eroded material
* by waves and currents, e.g. L.S.D. 4x1
(b) Beaches 1
(c) Kinetic energy of prevailing winds drive the waves.…read more

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The advantages of coastal protection to the hotel owner:
* reduces/slows coastal retreat
* improves safety of him/her guests
* prolongs his/her business/safeguards (future) investment
The disadvantages of coastal protection to the hotel owner:
* coastal protection schemes can be unsightly - reduces visitor numbers/income
* construction is prolonged = noise, disruption
* may be `downstream' affects on nearby coastal areas - alteration of currents, waves and beach
deposits 2x2
(h) The cliff might be protected from erosion by:
* sea walls
* revetments
*…read more

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GCSE COASTAL LANDSCAPES & PROCESSES
ANSWERS TO QUESTION 3
(a) A marina is a harbour for pleasure boats (i.e. not for commercial ships). 1
(b) (i) The beach has been eroded/deteriorated/contracted. 1
(ii) The large groyne was constructed:
* to provide a breakwater for the marina (calm water for boarding/loading/maintenance)
* prevent silting of marina
* for the accumulation/formation of a beach at A
Any two.…read more

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Isle of Thanet coastline is developed and so/or spoilt.
Pegwell and Sandwich Bays are unspoilt/undeveloped coastal areas.
South-east Essex is worthy of protection (despite being partially developed). 3x1
(ii) Isle of Thanet:
* spoilt by overdevelopment
* e.g. expansion of holiday resorts to form a linear/coastal `conurbation' between Margate -
Broadstairs - Ramsgate
* so tourist pressure/overcrowding leads to litter, noise and trampling
* so it declines in popularity
Pegwell and Sandwich Bays:
* are unspoilt because development has been concentrated elsewhere, e.g.…read more

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GCSE COASTAL LANDSCAPES & PROCESSES
ANSWERS TO QUESTION 4
(a) (i) * Bridlington
* Hornsea 2x1
(ii) * Auburn
* Hornsea Beck
* Ravenser Odd
Any two. 2x1
(iii) * Keyingham
* Patrington
Either answer. 1
(iv) Tharlesthorpe 1
(b) (i) Since the Roman times, the coastline has changed in the following ways:
* Humber estuary has become narrower
* east coast has retreated westward/inland
* Spurn Point has moved westward/inland
* Spurn Point has become a spit
Any three.…read more

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Major features of eroding (aggrading) headlands.
blowhole original cliff line
collapsed
roof
stack
crack
arch
cave
HWM
wave cut stump
notch LWM
wave-cut platform 6x1
(d) Examples could include:
* Flamborough Head, East Yorkshire
* Lyme Bay, South Devon and Dorset
* Milford Haven, Dyfed, south-west Wales
Ways in which uses of the coastline may conflict with each other:
* e.g. Flamborough Head
* tourism is a major economic activity, e.g.…read more

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GCSE COASTAL LANDSCAPES & PROCESSES
ANSWERS TO QUESTION 5
(a) (i) 1. beach
2. arch
3. stack
4. spit 4x1
(ii) 1. Beach:
* headland eroding to form a bay
* pebbles and sand transported by waves
* in shelter/calmer water of bay material is deposited on a wave-cut platform
* constructive waves operate in a sheltered bay
* over time deposits build/accumulate to form a beach
* beach angle depends on material - pebble beach has a steeper gradient than a sand beach
2.…read more

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The process is called longshore drift (L.S.D.):
* occurs when waves break at oblique angle to the shoreline - due to prevailing wind
* (kinetic energy of ) swash pushes sediment up and along beach at an angle (e.g.…read more

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