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Psychology Revision

Attachment is : Affectionate two way bond between two individuals. Characterised behaviours
such as Calling, Crying and Smiling.

Classical Conditioning.

Ivan PavLov = Behaviourist Learning theory

Attachment according classical conditioning is association. Before conditioning the unconditioned stimulus
produces unconditioned reflexes. During conditioning, something is associated with something…

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Dollard & Millar ­ Behaviourists ­ Learning Theory

Attachment evolves because of the rewards being given when good or when something bad is prevented
from happening. This causes behaviour to be repeated. If you do something bad and it results in an
unpleasant consequence then this behaviour is less likely…

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Harlows research. Criticism of learning theories.

Harlow separated a young monkey from it's mother. There were two pretend mother figures, one was just
wire with food and the other had a cloth over the wire. The monkey spent more time with the pretend
mother which was covered with a cloth.…

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Darwin's Theory

Theory of evolution
Darwins attempt to explain how change occurs
( Genetic variations)

Natural selection
Traits of variations are naturally selected.
(Traits increase chances of survival + reproduction)

Adaptive function
Behaviours that increase likelihood of survival and therefore reproduction.

Bowlby's theory

According to Bowlby : Attachment is a…

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Mary Ainsworth

Her Early research in Uganda found, some mothers were more sensitive to infants needs and these were
securely attached. Secure attachment led to increasing competence and independence.
Learning theory can't explain the importance of sensitivity in attachments but Bowlby's theory can.

The Strange Situation

1 )The parent plays…

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Attachments affecting future behaviour

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Caregiver VS Temperament

Strange Situations Validity


Demand characteristics ? Social desirability
+ Predictive validity ? Correlation between attachment type and adult behaviour.
+ Constructive validity. ? the types have been confirmed by many
+ High ecological validity.


+ Inter rater reliability
+ Two or more people observe the…

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Country Behavioural categories Justification
Israel Willingness to explore: High children born into
Separation anxiety: Low community belong to
Strange anxiety: Low everyone
Reunion behaviour: Medium Bought up away from
biological parents.
Japan Willingness to explore: Low Never leave their children
Separation anxiety: High Rarely separated
Strange anxiety: High Highly responsive…

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Evaluation of Crosscultural studies.

Point Example Conclusion
Enables psychologists to see African tribe ­ Tronik. (In spite ofSupports monotropy + that
which behaviours are universal or their childrearing, the infants still attachment is innate and universal.
due to the effect of culture had one primary attachment)

Point Example…


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