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A2 PSYCHOLOGY
AQA
Aggression




PSYA3 - Aggression

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AGGRESSION

Social psychological explanations
Social learning theory
De-individuation

Institutional aggression
Importation
Deprivation

Biological explanations
Neural mechanisms
Hormonal mechanisms
Genetics

Evolutionary explanations
Jealousy
Infidelity

Group display of aggression in sport
Xenophobia
Territoriality

Warfare
Sexual selection

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What is i
t?
Social Learning theory

The Social Learning Theory proposes that aggression is learnt through imitation
More likely to be repeated if:
· Behaviour is reinforced (rewarded)
· A role model is the one behaving in this
manner
Reinforcing this behaviour with a reward makes it
more likely…

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BANDURA'S BOBO DOLL STUDY

Male and female
participants aged 3-5
years old




Half were exposed to
Half were exposed to
adults models interacting
adults interacting non-
aggressively with the bobo
aggressively
doll



o k m ummy
"Lo d oll we
t h a t
The results showed : its hit"…

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Evaluation

Difficult to generalise the findings to aggressive behaviour towards other living
things = as it was only a toy and the children could make the difference between a
living and non living thing, so we cannot conclude that they would have behaved
the same way towards another child

The…

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Deindividuation
Zimbardo introduced deindividuation, which refers
to the loss of personal identity and personal
responsibility when we are for example part of a
crowd wearing a mask


Can be used to explain an increase in aggressive behaviour because when
belonging to an anonymous crowd the individual loses their personal socialised…

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Evaluation
RWA = suicide baiting crowds are a psychological phenomenon and refer to
crowds that can be present at a site where person threatens to jump off a
building with the intent of committing suicide. The crowd is referred to as baiting
because they taunt the victim and maliciously encourage…

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Institutional aggression
= the violent behaviour that exists within institutions - occurs when aggressive behaviour has
become the norm in an institution

Two types of factors are used to explain institutional aggression: the importation
model (dispositional factors) and the deprivation model
(situational factors)
IMPORTATION

IMPORTATION MODEL - Irwin & Cressey…

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Deprivation model
This structural explanation suggest that the prisoners aggression starts as a result of internal
factors within the prison setting. The overwhelming crisis in the UK prisons has been linked and
can increase in both interpersonal violence and self-harm

According to the deprivation model, aggression in prisons is a…

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Evaluation
RWA = further prison staff should be placed appropriately based upon Davies and Burgess's
research which found that more experienced officers were less likely to suffer an assault. However
its become a political issue as to whether public money should be spent on prisoners, thus limiting
the potential application…

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