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Social psychological explanations
Social learning theory
Institutional aggression
Biological explanations
Neural mechanisms
Hormonal mechanisms
Evolutionary explanations
Group display of aggression in sport
Sexual selection…read more

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What is i
Social Learning theory
The Social Learning Theory proposes that aggression is learnt through imitation
More likely to be repeated if:
· Behaviour is reinforced (rewarded)
· A role model is the one behaving in this
Reinforcing this behaviour with a reward makes it
more likely to be imitated due to
the child learning that the behaviour is effective
and therefore they will attach value to acting
aggressively.…read more

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Male and female
participants aged 3-5
years old
Half were exposed to
Half were exposed to
adults models interacting
adults interacting non-
aggressively with the bobo
o k m ummy
"Lo d oll we
t h a t
The results showed : its hit"
have to
· The children in the aggressive condition were seen to
reproduce more physical and verbal aggression
towards the Bobo doll
· Where as children in the non-aggressive condition saw
almost no aggression displayed…read more

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Difficult to generalise the findings to aggressive behaviour towards other living
things = as it was only a toy and the children could make the difference between a
living and non living thing, so we cannot conclude that they would have behaved
the same way towards another child
The children were all white-middle class Americans = lacks population validity
Lacks external validity as it was conducted in controlled conditions = doesn't
replicate real life
Demand characteristics = could have recognised what was expected of…read more

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Zimbardo introduced deindividuation, which refers
to the loss of personal identity and personal
responsibility when we are for example part of a
crowd wearing a mask
Can be used to explain an increase in aggressive behaviour because when
belonging to an anonymous crowd the individual loses their personal socialised
identity and instead adopts the `group mind'. They feels less constrained by the
norms of social behaviour and they feel able to behave in an anti-social way e.g.…read more

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RWA = suicide baiting crowds are a psychological phenomenon and refer to
crowds that can be present at a site where person threatens to jump off a
building with the intent of committing suicide. The crowd is referred to as baiting
because they taunt the victim and maliciously encourage them to jump as if its
some entertainment to them.…read more

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Institutional aggression
= the violent behaviour that exists within institutions - occurs when aggressive behaviour has
become the norm in an institution
Two types of factors are used to explain institutional aggression: the importation
model (dispositional factors) and the deprivation model
(situational factors)
This is a dispositional explanation because it explains aggression by looking at
the characteristics that individuals bring into the prison
Prisoners are not blank slates; they are in prison for a reason so when they…read more

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Deprivation model
This structural explanation suggest that the prisoners aggression starts as a result of internal
factors within the prison setting. The overwhelming crisis in the UK prisons has been linked and
can increase in both interpersonal violence and self-harm
According to the deprivation model, aggression in prisons is a
DEPRIVATION product of the oppressive conditions of the institution itself
Sykes (1958) argued that the origin of prison subculture comes from
within the institution, not outside.…read more

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RWA = further prison staff should be placed appropriately based upon Davies and Burgess's
research which found that more experienced officers were less likely to suffer an assault.…read more


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