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Social Social Learning Social Learning Theory has 4 basic Bandura, Ross & Ross (1961)
Psychological Theory processes Equal number of boys & girls, half experimental group exposed to
Approaches Bandura (1963) Attentionhow much you concentrate on aggressive model half non aggressive model. Same sex…

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Deinidividuation Le bon: described how an individual can Zimbardo (1969) showed the effects of reduced inhibitions. Used
transform when part of a crowd. Instead female undergraduates in a study of learning. Stooge played
a collective mind takes over the crowd. student, participant played teacher. Student had to complete set of…

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Frustration Dollard (1939) frustration leads to Berkowitz & LePage (1967) 100 undergraduate Psychology
Aggression aggression students (US) can just seeing a firearm trigger aggression? Electric
Hypothesis shock experiment problem solving task either fire arm or
badminton racket present. Angry subjects with fire arm present
gave more shocks than badminton condition.

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Institutional Within Groups Situational Forces (deprivation) Zimbardo Stanford Prison Experiment behaviour in the experiment
Aggression Paterline and Peterson (1999): Factors was said to be due to `situational forces'
present in social situations that can Real life example Abu Ghraib jail Iraqi prisoners of war subjected
collectively encourage the showing of…

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3. Negative evaluation and
dehumanisation of the target
group, leading to...
4. Moral values and rules becoming Dehumanisation: evidence can be seen in many conflicts across the
inapplicable killing begins... world. However, dehumanisation may also explain violence against
5. Passivity of bystanders (i.e. UN) immigrants.
enhances the process.
Dehumanisation: usually…

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Adoption studies: Possible to disentangleStudies of youth violence do not suggest a strong role for heredity.
genetic and environmental factors by Problems with sampling: violent criminals only represent a small
comparing adopted children and sample of people involved in aggression.
biological parents. Some violent crimes are not necessarily aggressive.

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Androgensmale sex hormones, the most Nelson (1995) reviewed research in to how hormones influence
Neural & important one being testosterone. aggressive behaviour. Positive correlation between level of
Hormonal Meta analyses have shown a weak androgens and aggressive behaviour in men and women prisoners.
mechanisms correlation between testosterone and (But level…

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Antipsychotics reduce dopamine activity
and also reduce aggressive behaviour. DETERMINISTIC
(Buitelaar, 2005)

Evolutionary Aggressive Evolutionary psychology = by understanding the human brain and
explanations behaviour by the way it has evolved we will be able to explain aggressive
of aggression animals behaviour. How did it develop in the first place?…

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Evolutionary Infidelity and jealousy Men experience The process of being unfaithful to your partner! Evolutionary
explanations of sexual jealousy because of the threat of psychologists argue that the act of infidelity triggers an emotional
human aggression cuckoldry. state within the individual as it is perceived threat to the relationship


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