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Social Social Learning Social Learning Theory has 4 basic Bandura, Ross & Ross (1961)
Psychological Theory processes Equal number of boys & girls, half experimental group exposed to
Approaches Bandura (1963) Attentionhow much you concentrate on aggressive model half non aggressive model. Same sex or opposite
the model showing the behaviour? sex role model. Control group adult no interact with bobo doll.
Retentionstoring the behaviour you Observed aggressive behaviour. Children who witnessed aggressive
witnessed behaviour, far more likely to show aggressive behaviour themselves.
ReproductionCopying the behaviour you Boys more aggressive when model was male, less significant for
witnessed girls.
Motivation Having good reason for
showing the witnessed behaviour again Lab experiment, lacked realism, ecological validity
(positive reinforcement) Demand characteristics of the experiment
Video footage available of experiment (ethical issue
Learning takes place through the confidentiality)
observation of role models. The individual + Bandura's theory helps to explain why children might copy
forms a mental representation of the + Bandura's research emphasized the power of the media
event. Assumed learning is the same for all cultures
The likelihood of aggression is increased if Assumes child absorbs behaviour and imitates it without
high self efficacy level. logical thought (Behaviouristic =deterministic)
Bobo dolls: SLT demonstrated in young Ignored any biological influence in aggression
children imitated model but only if the Little consideration of how environmental factors may
model was rewarded for the actions that contribute e.g. overcrowding, temperature
they carried out.
Children were never rewarded or punished for the acts that
Children learn through vicarious
they carried out.
reinforcement by learning the
Bandura and Watson: learning takes place regardless of
reinforcement effects of others actions.
If child is rewarded: likely to repeat the
act. Phillips (1986) found that daily homicide rates in US almost always
increased in the week following a major boxing match suggesting
people were imitating behaviour that they had seen.
Cultural differences some culture not violent, or can channel
aggression so it is a positive thing.

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Deinidividuation Le bon: described how an individual can Zimbardo (1969) showed the effects of reduced inhibitions. Used
transform when part of a crowd. Instead female undergraduates in a study of learning. Stooge played
a collective mind takes over the crowd. student, participant played teacher. Student had to complete set of
Thus a person can then go against their tasks, electric shocks were delivered to the `stooge student' if they
own morals and what they believe. completed tasks wrongly.…read more

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Frustration Dollard (1939) frustration leads to Berkowitz & LePage (1967) 100 undergraduate Psychology
Aggression aggression students (US) can just seeing a firearm trigger aggression? Electric
Hypothesis shock experiment problem solving task either fire arm or
badminton racket present. Angry subjects with fire arm present
gave more shocks than badminton condition.…read more

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Institutional Within Groups Situational Forces (deprivation) Zimbardo Stanford Prison Experiment behaviour in the experiment
Aggression Paterline and Peterson (1999): Factors was said to be due to `situational forces'
present in social situations that can Real life example Abu Ghraib jail Iraqi prisoners of war subjected
collectively encourage the showing of to degrading & dehumanizing treatment.
certain aggressive / antisocial behavioursMcCorkle et al found that over crowding, lack of privacy and lack
that otherwise would not have been seen,of meaningful activity all significantly influence peer violence.…read more

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Negative evaluation and
dehumanisation of the target
group, leading to...
4. Moral values and rules becoming Dehumanisation: evidence can be seen in many conflicts across the
inapplicable killing begins... world. However, dehumanisation may also explain violence against
5. Passivity of bystanders (i.e. UN) immigrants.
enhances the process.…read more

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Adoption studies: Possible to disentangleStudies of youth violence do not suggest a strong role for heredity.
genetic and environmental factors by Problems with sampling: violent criminals only represent a small
comparing adopted children and sample of people involved in aggression.
biological parents. Some violent crimes are not necessarily aggressive.
Hutchings and Mednick (1975) study of Possibility of genetic engineering creating ethical issues.…read more

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Androgensmale sex hormones, the most Nelson (1995) reviewed research in to how hormones influence
Neural & important one being testosterone. aggressive behaviour. Positive correlation between level of
Hormonal Meta analyses have shown a weak androgens and aggressive behaviour in men and women prisoners.…read more

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Antipsychotics reduce dopamine activity
and also reduce aggressive behaviour. DETERMINISTIC
(Buitelaar, 2005)
Evolutionary Aggressive Evolutionary psychology = by understanding the human brain and
explanations behaviour by the way it has evolved we will be able to explain aggressive
of aggression animals behaviour. How did it develop in the first place?
Lorenz (1966) ethologist wrote `On Aggression'. He said humans
are animals therefore show similar behaviour patterns to animals.
There are 4 main drivers behind the behaviour of any animal fear,
reproduction, hunger & aggression.…read more

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Evolutionary Infidelity and jealousy Men experience The process of being unfaithful to your partner! Evolutionary
explanations of sexual jealousy because of the threat of psychologists argue that the act of infidelity triggers an emotional
human aggression cuckoldry. state within the individual as it is perceived threat to the relationship
Sexual jealousy designed to deter a mate and current status quo. Buss (1992) argues this leads to showing of
from infidelity. behaviours that eliminate the threat (violent or aggressive
Males have evolved mate retention behaviour).
strategies.…read more


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