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African Americans - Introduction Civil War 1860 - 1864
African Americans originated from the slave trade in the 18th In 1854, the Republican party was formed to oppose slavery and the
century Democrats formed who were popular in the slave-trade rich south!
This slavery experience gave the African Americans a sense of Abraham Lincoln believed that if Slavery was contained in the south, it
pride and unity would eventually go away
Northern states disputed slavery, cotton-based southern states
favoured the slave trade. Northern African Americans had civil rights to The south did not believe Lincoln and broke off from the Union to form
vote (for men) the Confederacy (11 states)
However, these rights were theoretical. The Abolitionist Movement
began in 1817, demanded the abolition of the slaves. Despite the work When Southern leader Jefferson Davis laid claim to arm stores in South
of this, the attitude to blacks in the north remained hostile. Carolina, conflict broke out.
The Emancipation Reconstruction Policy
African Americans
Andrew Johnson's Reconstruction Policy
could now:
In 1863, Abraham In 1865, all slaves 1865 ­ 1877
Lincoln issued the in the country Time of reconstructing the south after the
- Have their
Emancipation were formally destruction during the civil war. The
Proclamation. freed with the northern states attempted to impose their
Gave freedom to passing of the 13th wishes regarding the new status of the
the slaves in the amendment after African Americans. The white south
- Worship their
states of the the formal ending resented attempts at controlling their
own religion
south. In the of the civil war. society and by 1977 had largely re-
- Own property
north, slaves were MASSIVE TURNING established their right to run their states in
- Become
not freed. POINT! the way they wanted. Rights for blacks
were completely theoretical
- Travel freely…read more

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Conventions, Carpetbaggers and
Civil Rights Act 1866 Scalawags
African Americans, not Native Americans, were full citizens of the 700000 black MEN
Scalawags Carpetbaggers
United States, even if they had previously been slaves. They had were now enrolled
These were white Those who came
the right to vote, equality under law and freedom of movement to vote by 1868.
southerners who from the north
& employment these had a major
helped the who came to
role in electing
Carpetbaggers from implement the
members to the
the north to import policy of
Conventions that
reconstruction on Reconstruction on
In 1867, reconstruction went further than politics when the had been set up by
the Southern states, the South and
Military Reconstruction Act was passed by Congress. This divided Congress to allow
co-operating with improve the
the south into military districts. Constitutional conventions would Blacks a say in the
African Americans situation of blacks
set up new state governments. running of the
Rights for blacks in the North Freedman's Bureau
However: The majority of freed blacks were now homeless and
unemployed. The most notable organisation set up to
One area where blacks managed help them was the Freedman's Bureau, set up by the
to take advantage of were the Federal Government in 1865 to support freed slaves
The majority of the Northern opportunities in politics. In the
population as still white. By 1870s, 22 blacks were elected to
The Bureau set up self-help groups in providing
1877, less than 5% of the Congress, 20 to the House of education for black children and adults. However,
North was populated by Representatives, and 2 to the by 1890, 65% of black American school-aged
Blacks. Also, their rights to Senate. Blanche K. Bruce and children in the south were still unable to write.
voting and opportunities were Frederick Douglas were both
still highly theoretical. significant members of politics.
They were the first black It's leader, General Oliver Howard proved a
politicians to have positions after forceful leader. Their curriculum would train
the Civil War black lawyers, scientists and teachers.…read more

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The Slaughterhouse Case Black Codes
W.E.B. Du Bois said that the ex-slave `stood a brief moment in the
sun, before it went behind a large cloud' Set up in 1865/6, these were an attempt to keep the blacks in an
inferior position by white southerners. Many northerners were
worried about the racial attitudes of the white southerners.
The case
In judging a case, the federal Supreme Court decided that
the rights of citizens should stay under state rather than Regulations
federal control. It rules that the 14th amendment protected The wide definition of the term `Negro' was used to defy African
a citizen's individual rights but not their civil rights. This was Americans up to the 1960s. Marriages were allowed, but inter-racial
the first of a number of victories for advocates of states unions were outlawed. Property could be owned but was expensive,
legal rights were limited. Black people could sue in court, but were
rights that would impede the granting of civil rights to banned from giving evidence against a white person, or serving on
African Americans juries. They couldn't vote, and education was in segregated schools.
Ku Klux Klan Civil Rights Act 1875
Set up in December 1865, reacting to the Motivated by the increased concern about the growing moves to formalise
threat of black freedom, it was set up to segregation in some southern states and the Act made it clear that equal
resist legislation relating to the freedom rights applied to public areas such as places of entertainment, drinking
of the black race houses and public transport
By 1867 it asserted that whites were HOWEVER
superior and that this superiority was
It was not enforced and later it was declared unconstitutional by
They committed violent atrocities and the Supreme Court in 1883.
directed these at blacks and those who
supported blacks.…read more

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U.S v Cruikshank, 1876 African Americans by 1877
Positives Negatives
The case - Slavery had gone forever - Most lacked land, capital or
- There was freedom of lucrative employment
Following a riot in Louisiana which left 70 African movement and freedom to opportunities, often
Americans and 2 white people dead, over 100 marry working for former masters
white men were arrested by the Federal - African Americans had - Majority of men barred
briefly had the chance to from voting & political
Authorities. They were freed when the Supreme vote opportunities cut-off
Court ruled that the Enforcement Act - Educational opportunities - They lived in fear of
became possible for blacks intimidation and viloence
empowered federal officers to take action only in all states - Segregation was becoming
against states and not against individuals! - They had the freedom of formalised, especially in
worship southern states
Jim Crow laws Social Darwinism
Jim Crow laws developed rapidly between 1887 and 1891, when This was an attempt to link Darwin's theory of evolution to the
8 southern states introduced segregation on trains, 3 extending discrimination of the black race. This would justify the
this to waiting rooms segregation and the discrimination against the blacks.
It re-enforced the school segregation laws which were created after the intense feelings were linked to the rise of the sensationalist press
the Civil War in the southern states with publications that perpetuated a black stereotype which included
laziness, intellectual weakness and a tendency to violence if provoked.
White southerners who were unsure about the separation between the
races could now be educated and persuaded that segregation would
After 1891, segregation laws were formally and rapidly extended to
prevent racial tensions and prevent bloodshed
cover public places of all kinds…read more

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Plessy v. Ferguson 1896 Measures by southern whites
Southern state governments devised complex rules which were technically
The case non-racial, to keep up segregation:
Homer Plessy was a mixed race man, who was legally classed as
black, who sued for being denied a seat in an all-white railway - Poll tax ­ before polling, the voter had to make a monetary payment
carriage. The justices decided 8-1 against him that segregation which had to be made well in-advance.
was constitutional. They ruled that separation didn't itself mean - Property Qualifications ­ some states also imposed rules which meant
inferior treatment. that only those who owned their own home were allowed to vote
- Literacy tests ­ in Mississippi, literacy tests of 1880 included being able
to interpret a section of the constitution. This process could be
Impact arranged so that the questions for uneducated whites were simpler
The case acted as a legal precedent for segregation in all forms of than those for their African-American equivalents
public life. In theory this meant that facilities for whites and blacks - Grandfather Clauses ­ this was an effective measure to eliminate black
must be separate but equal, yet in reality black facilities were of much but not white votes. The franchise was granted to adult males provided
lower standards. their fathers or grandfathers had voted before the Reconstruction.
Mississippi v. Williams 1898 Booker T. Washington
The case Who was he?
Black defendant Henry Williams argued that the jury which convicted
him was unconstitutionally selected since blacks had been excluded Born into slavery into a mixed race family, he made use of the educational
from the electoral register from which the juries were selected. The opportunities given to blacks in the late eighteenth century. After studying,
Court rejected Williams' case on the grounds that the exclusion of Washington became a teacher and decided to created his own institute, the
Tuskogee Institute, in 1881.
blacks from the voting register may have been the effect of state
legislation but as not its intention The institute was formed amidst the Jim Crow laws. Washington had many
resolves to this problem. He decided that the only way to resist discrimination
was to become `thrift' and `clean' and gain basic skills, to challenge the white
Impact man and gain educational opportunities
Ruled the Mississippi Poll Tax and similar devices were constitutional At Tuskogee, the focus was on literacy and numeracy, and more practical skills,
and didn't breach the 15th amendment. This cleared the way for even rather than intellectual accomplishments. Yet, he realised that the basic
stricter conditions. education he provided was enough for those educated to move onto more
academic education later.…read more

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Booker T. Washington Booker T. Washington
The Atlanta Speech - 1895 Criticism & Response
In a speech in Atlanta, Georgia in 1895, Washington Criticism
argued that if whites could regard blacks as potential Washington's critics argued that he
economic partners rather than dangerous political seemed to accept the idea of white
opponents the race question would be defused supremacy and was making no
attempt to higher the position of
Segregation would be accepted for the time being, yet the
emphasis for black people should be on education and
economic opportunity rather than agitating for social W.E.B Dubois was Washington's
equality and votes. This opened up the idea of main opponent. He regarded his Washington was hurt by these criticisms.
accommodation of blacks into the white south views as limited and dangerous. He He was over-sensitive and found debate
was concerned that Washington's with W.E.B Du Bois difficult. He even
This speech made Washington popular, and when he accused them of jealousy. Eventually he
became the main leader in the southern black approach wouldn't help the
realised his approach wasn't working.
community, his reputation soared. developments needed
Booker T. Washington The Niagara movement, 1905
Conclusion Formed in Niagara falls, by the critics of
Washington, Du Bois and William Trotter
- His advancement from slave to - His policy seemed to accept the
college principal provided an lower position of blacks
inspiring tale for African - He focused on working within the
system, rather than changing it
They wanted a campaign to restore voting rights
Americans to follow
- He had a negative view of the vote and to abolish all discrimination. It was a rejection
- Washington set strict standards of
behaviour and self-discipline
for blacks of Washington's ideas.
- His position as African American
- Between 1895 ­ 1905, he was the leader was questioned by blacks, but
main leader and spokesman for he was popular with whites
the black race in the US - Washington was paranoid and
Niagara was never going to become a mass
- Developed many valuable suspicious of criticism. movement, Du bois and others were too
contacts in the white-dominated - The educational gap between academic in their approach. however, it did
political world blacks and whites still existed precedent the formation of the NAACP…read more

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