Additional chemistry help

Breif notes on all of AQA chemistry GCSE additional science

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Chemistry revision

The Atom

Atoms are made up of 3 sub-atomic particles, which are protons (mass =1, charge=+1, part of the
nucleus) Neutrons (mass=1, charge= neutral, part of the nucleus) and electrons (mass=0, charge =-1,
always in shells) together there are the same number of protons as electrons, meaning that…

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Covalent bonding

Covalent bonding is where atoms get a
full outer shell by sharing electrons, and
this is done by two non metals getting
their electrons from there outer shell and
joining with other non metals, and there
can be one pair shared, or multiple
electrons to create double or…

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sensors, electrical equipment, building materials and many more uses, and development means they
will be ever improving.


Polymers are plastics, and they have very useful properties in industry, and there are 2 main types of
polymers, thermosetting and thermosoftning. Thermosetting polymers hydrocarbon chains have the
structure of rows and…

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44.8/56=0.8 19.2/16=1.2
8 12
2 3 so the answer would be Fe2O3, an experiment has to be done to get an empirical formula.

Masses in reactions= this is where you're given 2 bits of information, and for example if X product
was produced, how much of Y reactant was used,…

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The Rate of reaction is how quickly a substance fully reacts, and it can be affected by 4 things,
concentration (or pressure), temperature, catalyst and surface area, and I will explain each one of
these areas. The conversion to work out rate of reaction is.
Amount of reactant used or…

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The next way is to measure the ROR is the change in mass, and what you do is you get 2 reactants,
such as HCL and magnesium strips, and what you do is you put the HCL in a conical flask, and measure
on a scale. Then what you would…

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L= liquid

G= gas

Aq= aqueous, dissolved in water

Acids and metals

The main equation for reacting metals with acids is

Acid + Metal = salt + hydrogen

However the reaction only takes place if the metal is more reactive than hydrogen, for example if
you where to try and…

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Ammonium nitrate is mainly used for fertiliser, as it has double nitrogen and therefore gives the plans
more nitrogen, which is used for protein.

Making salts

There are 3 main ways to make salts; the first way to make a soluble salt is through mixing an acid
with a metal…

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Reduction: gain of electrons at the negative electrode (Remember OILRIG (Oxidation is loss,
Reduction is gain)

To show how electrolysis works I will use the example of copper bromide (charges of Cu+2 Br-) these
solutions are molten, so the Ions are free and there are no other ions to displace…

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dioxide gas, and this means the carbon has to be replaced every now and again, because the carbon
gets eaten away.


Electroplating is when you deposit one metal on another for 2 main reasons, firstly it may be for
decoration, as a bronze cup with electroplated silver is cheaper…


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