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Contents page
· What is addiction?-3
· Models of addiction [biological +cognitive]- 4
· Explanations of smoking- 10
· Explanations of gambling- 11
· Vulnerability to addiction-13
· Reducing addictive behaviour-14…read more

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What is addiction?
· Serious addictions are regarded as mental disorders
· World health organisations [WHO] prefers the ward
dependence to addiction.
· Initation is the process where individuals start to
become addicted.
· Maintenance is the process whereby people continue to
have addictions even if there are consequences
· Relapse is the process whereby individuals who have
managed to give up their addictive habits but start to
show signs and symptoms of the behaviour again.…read more

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Biological model
· Multiple genes are involved and that different
genes cause different addictions. Family studies of
alcohol use disorders have shown high rates among
relatives. Merikangas found that 36% of the
relatives of the individual with an alcohol disorder
had also been diagnosed with an alcohol use
disorder. But we cannot separate out of the effects
of environmental and genes. Genetics are likely to
cause a predisposition- it is the environment to
trigger the addiction…read more

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Dopamine reward system- susceptible to addiction may
have a more sensitive mesolimbic dopamine pathway.
Research shows that nicotine and alcohol increase
dopamine.
Neuroadaption- when drugs are stopped the adaptation or
change is no longer needed it disrupts the brain
homeostasis. This explains why people build up a
tolerance to drugs. Much of the data is correlation.
Research still does not explain how people can
experiment with drugs.
Evaluation: Reductionist- reduce the complex nature of
addiction. Ignores all other potential influences
Support of dopamine- Some people after experimenting
with drugs go on to develop an addiction and others do
not. Grant did a study using monkeys and found that
dopamine can be influenced by social interaction…read more

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Cognitive model
· Self medication: Drugs are taken because they are
perceived as helping with a particular problem. Drugs to
treat psychological symptoms that they may suffer from
[Gelkopt] Smokers report high levels of stress than non
smokers. [Parrot] smoking brings about stress. Similar
effect has been observed with alcohol
· Evaluation: Gottdiener study looked at failure of ego.
Ego control means the ability to control impulses to self
medicate through drugs. *Sanjun- sexually abused
women were more inhabitations then non-abused
women.…read more

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