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What is addiction
This is a repetitive enactment of behaviour pattern
that includes: being preoccupied with a certain
activity, having a loss of control, persistence of this
activity despite negative effects and a progression
in severity. This activity becomes most important is
someone's life and dominates thinking through
pre-occupation, feeling through cravings and
behaviour such as neglecting social activities.…read more

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Classification of addiction
· the person develops a tolerance to smoking
·Efforts to quit addiction are unsuccessful
·Substance is taken in larger amounts of a period of time
·A lot of time is devoted to making sure there is access to the
·Reduction of social/occupational activities as a result of the addiction
·Preoccupation with gambling
·Needs to gamble with increasing amounts of money to achieve
desired excitement
·Repeated unsuccessful efforts to control or stop gambling
·Gambling is a way of escaping from problems
·Lies to conceal extent of gambling addiction
·Has committed forgery, fraud of theft in order to finance gambling
·Has jeopardised or lost a significant relationship, job or education
opportunity because of gambling…read more

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Biological causes of addiction ­ disease model
Rewarding experiences such as drug taking triggers the release of
the neurotransmitter dopamine (giving a sense of pleasure)
effectively telling the brain to repeat this rewarding experience
through the reward pathway. There are lasting memories between
taking the drug and a positive reward.
The reward pathway can be rewarded up to 20 times per cigarette
with nicotine only taking 15 seconds to reach the brain. This is
means there is a shorter time between action and reward further
reinforcing this behaviour. The maintenance of smoking could be
because nicotine changes the structure and function of reward
system which can be shown on brain scans (empirical evidence )
continued overproduction of dopamine leads to desensitisation in
receptors which leads to increasing desire to engage in this
behaviour, in order to return to the same level of dopamine high.
The relapse could also be associated with the memory pathways
making addicts highly sensitive to reminders about past highs, they
are vulnerable to relapse when they are stressed and unable to
control the urge to repeat smoking.…read more

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Genetics ­ biological model
A higher concordance rate of alcohol addiction has
been found in MZ twins compared to DZ twins.
There is an estimated 60% heritability for alcohol
addiction and a 45 ­ 79% heritability for drug use.
This helps explain why some people drink a lot of
alcohol or does drugs but doesn't become addicted
as they are less susceptible because it doesn't run
in their family. However there is not a 100%
concordance so other factors aside from genetics
must also be responsible.
Many studies have found a link between various
addictions and variations of the DRD2 gene which
is a dopamine receptor gene. Individuals with the
A1 variant seem to have significantly less dopamine
receptors in the brain's pleasure centre. This
means the person may have to do more to get a
buzz such as revert to addiction.…read more

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Biological factors
This might influence the persons first positive or negative
experience of addiction, if positive the person is more likely to
maintain their addiction for example if they won money from
gambling or had fun with friends why smoking. A study on
male adolescent rats supports this as they where only given
alcohol to drink for three days. For the next ten days the rats
where offered either water or alcohol. It was found that the
preference for alcohol was significantly correlated with earlier
consumption. However this was a study of rats so cannot be
generalised as humans are a completely different species who
may react differently when put under the same circumstances.…read more

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great presentation- thank you

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