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All abnormality has a physiological cause



1. Brain damage
Structure of brain damaged in some way,
i.e. Alzheimer disease


2. Infection
Link between syphilis and general paresis


3. Genetics
Some genetically predisposed ­ investigate using
Twin, Family and Adoption studies


4. Biochemistry
Imbalance of neurotransmitter and/or hormones,
i.e. Increase dopamine…

Page 2

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All abnormality is a learned response




1. Classical conditioning
Learning by association,
i.e. stimulus-response


2. Operant conditioning
Learning by consequence of actions,
i.e. positive and negative reinforcement

3. Social learning theory
Observing and imitating our role models
i.e. Bandura Bobo doll experiment
4.

Page 3

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All abnormality has an underlying unconscious cause




1. Unconscious conflict between psyche
Unconscious conflict between id and superego
(this develops in Oedipus conflict).



2. Repressed traumatic childhood experiences
Ego is not mature enough to deal with traumatic
experience, therefore the ego represses the
memory into the unconsciousness.

Page 4

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All abnormality is caused by distorted thinking patterns




1. Irrational thinking
Ellis ­ link between thought, feeling and
behaviour. Maladaptive thinking can be
has a maladaptive consequence.

2. Errors in logic and cognitive triad
Beck ­ investigated women with depression
Created the cognitive triad:
Negative views about oneself
Negative views…

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