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- Modernisation theorists argue that underdevelopment occurs because nations lack
key ingredients to move from one stage to the next stage.
- Lack of technology or an absence of entrepreneurs = linked with economic and cultural

- Economic Barrier act as a barrier to…

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Ethnocentric ­ they idealize Western capital industrial society and suggest that it has no
problem, in others words that it is superior. They underestimate traditional societies
suggesting that their economies and cultures have no value.
Oversimplify ­ assume that all societies follow the same basic development path. They

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- Neo-Liberalisation's central idea is that the underdeveloped countries should follow
the rich world's path to development.
- It rejects aid as a central process and sees trade as the vital process in development.
- Growth can only occur in an environment where trade is encouraged by limiting

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- Neo-liberal theorists are that conventional aid ­centred policies have actually
hindered growth. Peter Bauer ­ argues that these approaches make countries rot by
preventing painful but necessary changes. Aid is seen as propping up corrupt
governments which is relieved of the need to care for their populations. Aid is…

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