A2 OCR Biology | F215 Module 1 - Homeobox Sequences & Body Plans

Thorough but straight to the point - A one page Word Document on Homeobox Sequences & Body Plans for A2 Biology that are specific to Module 1 of the F215 Chapter in the OCR Biology Specification, of which can be found on the OCR website. Enjoy, hope they're of use!

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A2 OCR Biology | F215 Module 1 ­ Homeobox Sequences & Body Plans Dean Williams
(i) Genes control the development of body plans in organism and are similar in plants,
animals and fungi because these organisms contain similar DNA which therefore means the
genetic code within their DNA sequence would also be similar. Proteins control the
development of body plans in organisms, and since the structure and function of a protein is
determined by the genetic code within DNA, organisms with similar DNA can have similar
body plans. With reference to Homeotic Genes, this is explained further below:
A body plan of an organism, which includes the positioning of organs and body parts,
is controlled by Proteins that set up the basic body plan. Homeotic Genes code for these
proteins that are involved in the production of body plans for example in the Drosophila
The Drosophila's body plan is coded for by Proteins that are coded for by different
Homeotic Gene Clusters. The body plan of the Anterior Thorax is controlled by one Homeotic
Gene Cluster, and the Body plan of the Posterior Thorax is controlled by one other Homeotic
Gene Cluster. Different clusters of Homeotic Genes code for different parts of the body
of an organism.
Plants, animals and fungi have similar Homeotic Genes which means that the process
by which the development of body plans are controlled, is similar between these
different sets of organism. Homeotic Genes control the development of body plans in
the following way:
Homeotic Genes code for the Proteins that are involved in the control of the
development of body plans, but these Homeotic Genes contain a region called
a Homeobox Sequence that codes for the Homeodomain part of a protein.
The Homeodomain part of a Protein is the part that binds to a section of the
DNA to act as a transcription factor, for example binding to the Operator
section of the control elements of a section of DNA. The Protein can then act as
an activator or a repressor because of the Homeodomain binding to an Operator,
controlling the production of other proteins that are involved in the
development of the body plan of an organism.

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