A2 Health Psychology - Chap 1-8

Has got all chapters, * on tha chapters that may come up in june 2009's exam..

has got aim, sample, method/procedure, results & conclusion on all studies,

also terms & concept with evaluation on each chapter

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  • Created on: 18-05-09 14:35
Preview of A2 Health Psychology - Chap 1-8

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Ley et al: (Remembering medical information)
Aim: Whether patients can remember medical information in a structured/non-structured way.
Sample: Patients & Students
Method/ Procedure: List of medical information given in a structured and non-structured way, having
participants/patients recalling the info.
Result: Found structured info's were easier to remember, 25% better remembrance. Students found structured
info 50% easier to recall.
McKinstry & Wang: (Patients opinion on doctor's dress code)
Aim: Perception of doctors on their appearance and dress.
Sample: Patients
Method/ Procedure: Patients were shown pictures of Drs wearing white coat/suits or cardigan/skirt/ trousers.
Asked to rate if they were happy with their dress/appearance & confident of their ability.
Result: Patients preferred traditional suit/white coat/ skirt.
McKinlay: (Jargon (terminology) and how much patients understood)
Aim: Do patients understand complex terms of medical information?
Sample: Female Patients (maternity ward)
Method/ Procedure: The understanding that a patient had with info given to them by health workers
Terms: Breech, Purgative, Mucus, Glucose, Antibiotic.
Recorded and then asked patients how much they understood.
Results: Terms understood by less then 40% of the female patients
Conclusion: Health workers used complex jargons so fewer patients would question & shorter sessions.
Marteau: (Optimism/Pessimism & effects on patients)
Aim: Does a doctor's enthusiasm have an affect on patients?
Sample: Patients
Method/ Procedure: How procedures were explained affected patient's decisions
Result: Optimistic statements `10% survival rather than 90% chance of dying' made patients more likely to
choose procedures
Robinson & West: (Computer Vs Dr.)
Aim: How much intimate information is a person willing to share with their doctor?
Sample: Patients
Method/Procedure: Patients who went to a genitor-urinary clinic
Were told to record intimate details of their symptoms on questionnaires either through
computer or paper.
Result: showed that people reveal more symptoms to a computer than they would through paper or to a doctor,
making it easier to be honest through computer and not be socially judged.
Costa & Mcrae: (Hypochondrias) (*Can also add Ley's study*)
Aim: Does neuroticism have an affect on people's health?
Sample: 1000 adults, aged 20-90
Method/ Procedure: Self Report Survey: 1. Cornell Medical Index (assessing body health (somatic) complaints
2. Emotionally stability scale (measuring neuroticism
Result: Showed that somatic complaints increased with neuroticism.
------ EVALUATION ------
Generalisibity: Individual differences & preferences in patients
Ethics: Confidentiality and informed consent, which can cause demand characteristics effecting results.
Representative: Small sample/ Gender/ Location

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(Also Linked to Chap 1: Ley (memory), McKinlay (jargon) & Robinson & West: (Computer Vs Dr.)
Bulpitt: (Rational non- adherence)
Aim: Why people do not obey to medical advice
Sample: Patients being treated for hypertension (high blood pressure)
Method/ Procedure: When Drs prescribed medicine to help male P's with hypertension, they were told of side effects
which effected sexual performance.…read more

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Congenital analgesia ­ the ability to feel no pain.
Sample: Miss C, From Canada who reported
Method/ Procedure: Electric shock, applied hot water to her, immersed her limbs in cold water pinched her tendons, stick into her nose,
and injected histamine under her skin.
Result: Even though she was going through these procedures she had no reported pain in her heart, blood pressure & her respiration
stayed normal.…read more

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Holmes & Rahe: (Social readjustment rating scale)
Aim: To construct an instrument for measuring stress
Sample: 5000 opportunity sampling
Method/ Procedure: records were examined and from this a list of 43 life events of varying seriousness i.e. wedding,
deaths of close one, divorce etc.
Result: High life changing unit's scores had a correlation of having a serious illness.…read more

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Rosenhan & Seligman's definition of ADDICTION: addiction of a substance resulting in tolerance & withdrawal symptoms
when the drugs removed
Griffith suggestion to 6 components of addiction: Salience (Thinking about it all the time), Euphoria (the buzz you get),
Tolerance (The more you want), Withdrawal symptoms, Conflict, Relapse (Every time you attempt to quit).…read more

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Wechasler: (Campaign about drinking limit)
Aim: To evaluate the effectiveness of marketing campaigns on alcohol among students
Sample: 25000 students and staff from USA College.
Method/Procedure: Quasi experiment, data collected from Harvard school of Public Health College, where their social
norm was to drink 4 or more pints.
Result: When using social norm marketing measure, no significant decrease in students drinking pattern were found,
however it increased, there was no differences in Colleges either.…read more

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Yale Model of Communication: Identified KEY suggestion for promoting persuasive messages.
SOURCE: Is it convincing? Trustworthy?
MESSAGE: 1 or 2 sided? Clear & direct? Colourful & vivid?
MEDIUM: 1 to 1? Personal message? Radio/T.V./Poster?
TARGET: Aim at whom? Sympathetic audience? Knowledgeable to the audience?
SITUATION: Where will it be? Home/Cinema/Doctors surgery?
Janis & Feschbach: (Fear method)
Aim: To see if fear appeal changes people's perception & behaviour
Sample: Students
Method/Procedure: Self Report.…read more

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Method/Procedure: Wellness programme & questionnaire.
Result: All those who participated changed in diet, weight, fitness & had more work enthusiasm. Workplace improved
making it the largest and best funded programmes ever.
Farquhar: (3 Communities)
Aim: To get people to change their behaviour and reduce risk of cardiovascular disease with the Stanford heart Disease
Prevention Programme.
Sample: 14,000 in each (3) community in North Cali. 3rd group was a control group with no info.
Method/ Procedure: Longitudinal quasi field experiment.…read more

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Belloc & Breslow: (7 Health practices)
Aim: Does following the 7 health practice increase longevity?
Sample: 6928 residents in 1 area of Cali
Method/Procedure: Self report ­ Epidemiological study to see if they followed the following; 1) Sleeping 7-8hrs daily, 2)
Eating breakfast almost everyday, 3) Never or rarely eating between meals, 4) Recommended BMI, 5) Never smoked
cigarettes, 6) Moderate or no use of alcohol, 7) Regular Exercise.…read more

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Conclusion: Bullying can cause unnecessary health problems.
UNICEF (GOBI ­ Child Survival)
Aim: To improve rates of child survival.
Growth monitoring to identify any malnutrition/failure to grow
Oral rehydration therapy for those who suffered sever diarrhoea ­ in poor countries diarrhoea is case of death
Breastfeeding promotion ­ breast milk have high nutrition and help immune babies from common disease.
Immunisation against the major childhood infection disease.…read more



A very detailed document, thank you!

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