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Biology F215

Animal Responses

Key Words

Acetylcholinesterase - An enzyme in the synaptic cleft that breaks down the transmitter substance acetylcholine

Antagonistic - Working against each other in a pair

Association Areas - Regions of the cerebral cortex where the information from sensory areas is made sense of by

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Parasympathetic neurone - Part of the autonomic nervous system, its nerve endings release acetylcholine as a

Sarcolemma - The term for the muscle fibre's plasma membrane

Sarcomere - In voluntary muscle, the span between one Z-line and the next Z-line, the Z line is the central part of the…

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The hemispheres are joined together via corpus callosum
The surface area of the cerebral cortex is 2.5m2, is thin and has a folded layer of nerve
cell bodies
o It consists of sensory areas which receive sensations from receptors,
association areas to interpret information by comparing with previous
experiences, and…

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This discovery has resulted from experimental work with monkeys, which has made the
research controversial
But why monkeys?
o Humans and monkeys are both primates and are closely related so share
similar genes due to having a common ancestor. The monkey brain is
therefore similar in structure to the human…

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muscle, smooth muscle and to glands all of which are not under voluntary control
The sympathetic nervous system
o Impulses from sympathetic nerves tend to have an excitatory effect
They prepare the body for the `fight or flight' response
Short preganglionic neurones use acetylcholine
o Long postganglionic neurones use noradrenaline…

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Out of these which are controlled by the sympathetic (S) or parasympathetic (P)?

How does the brain coordinate responses?

Responses are coordinated via the nervous and endocrine systems, through the action of hypothalamus and its
control of the pituitary gland
o A Fight or Flight response requires a range of…

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The Hypothalamus also releases CRF (corticotropin-releasing factor)
o This stimulates the secretion of ACTH (adreno-corticotropic hormone) from the anterior pituitary gland
Which leads to the release of corticosteroids from adrenal cortex into blood
These help the body
to resist stressors
(stimuli that cause
stress response)
The combined effects of increased…

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on the radius, this pull bends the lower arm upwards the triceps also relaxes - LEFT
o To move the arm down, the triceps contracts to pull on the end of the ulna, this pull pulls the lower arm
down and straightens it, the biceps also relaxes - RIGHT

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o Muscle cells form mulitnucleated fibres, surrounded by sarcolemma
o Have a striped (or striated) appearance

What is the structure of a muscle?

Contain many mitochondria Why?
Sarcolemma (plasma membrane) has many infolds called
transverse or T-tubules that spread the depolarisation to all
parts of muscle fibre
Extensive sarcoplasmic reticulum…

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At the presynaptic neurone
o An action potential arrives at the neuromuscular junction
Ca2+ channels open, allowing Ca2+ to enter presynaptic neurone
Vesicles containing acetylcholine fuse with the presynaptic membrane
o The neurotransmitter acetylcholine is then released into the gap by exocytosis
At the postsynaptic membrane
o Acetylcholine binds with…




Thanks! These are great - even the other ones you have for F215 :)

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