1905 revolutiom RUSSIA

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  • Created on: 16-10-12 10:58
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1905 Revolution
Causes
Russo Japanese war suffered defeat
Industrial recession & bad harvest
Instead of listening to petition attacked no longer little father
Denying freedom of religious & political expression
Tsar promised things but nothing had changed
Dissatisfaction
Government response
Reforms
october manifesto ­ civil liberties
Repression
union of Russian ppl defend Tsar black hundreds attack
Nov 1905 closed down St P soviet arrested
Dec 1905 revolutionaries were ruthlessly crushed
The course of events
Strikes 2.7 million workers by end of 1905 sergei assassinated by SR's
Peasant uprisings triggered by bad harvests & increased taxes
Mutinies Potemkin
St p soviet ­ an assembly of workers representing factories leader = Trotsky
Gov issued oct manifesto national parliament
The consequences
Fundamental law Tsar still in power
1st duma april 1906 dimissed
2nd duma feb 1907
3rd duma nov 1907 only wealthy could vote
Lesson
Tsar could survive
How much did liberals want change?
Trotsky said it failed due to disunited & inexperienced
Why it failed
Lack of unity reform/ total change
October manifesto ­ split opposition
Loyalty of the army
Dumas
Lower house could not create laws without approval of upper house & Tsar
Upper house were gentry memembers of society `the graveyard of Duma's hopes'
People's reaction to government change
Left stepping stone

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LONG TERM CAUSES:
Social & Economic causes:
80% population = peasants, most living in poverty - rapid population growth led to land
hunger
harvest failures 1892, 1898 & 1901 led to widespread famine - peasant reacted w/ violence
agriculture remained backwards, economy grew rapidly
towns & cities population grew rapidly - led to poor living & working conditions
poor conditions meant demands for change had a willing audience
Political causes:
autocratic state - Tsar had complete political power
o no elected national parliament, only elected…read more

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Mutinies:
armed forces = key to success/failure of revolution
not widespread but received publicity & helped undermine Tsar's authority
at no time during the revolution was the army likely to turn against the regime
St Petersburg Soviet:
product of general strike, Oct 1905 - assembly of workers
groups of workers from capital elected representatives - at height had 400+ members
published demands for radical social reform, but most work = organising strikes
showed workers = capable of organising selves & challenging govt in coordinated way…read more

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Fundamental Law, 1906:
Tsar survived revolution & issued `Fundamental Law' - became constitution of Russian
Empire
created national parliament, Lower House (Duma) = elected, Upper House (Council of
State) = partly elected & partly nominated by Tsar
Article 87 gave Tsar right to govern by decree, thus ignoring parliament
Tsar retained considerable political power
The Dumas:
first = elected April 1906 - contained many who wanted major reform
o only last 73 days before dissolved by Tsar using Fundamental Law powers
second = elected Feb…read more

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