Why Had International Peace Collapsed by 1939

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  • Why Had International Peace Collapsed by 1939
    • 1931
      • Japan's invasion of Manchuria
        • led to Italy, Germany and Japan control
          • Abyssinia
          • China
          • Austria
          • Czechoslovakia
          • Memel
          • Albania
          • Poland
    • long term consequences of peace treaties 1919-1923
      • dissatisfied powers
        • Italy
          • hoped to receive Adriatic port of Fiume and greater share of former german and Turkish colonies
        • Japan
          • racial equality clause was rejected at paris peace conference
            • expected a greater share of Germany's trading rights than china
        • Germany
          • hated treaty of versailles
            • territory
            • disarmament
            • guilt
            • reparations
          • stabbed in the back
            • by November criminals
              • Germany had actually not lost
              • wanted to profit from surrender
            • untrue myth
              • popular with right-wing
                • needed to overturn treaty of versailles
      • Germany's potential
        • treaty of versailles
          • dissatisfied
          • allowed to gain power
            • resources
      • hitler's foreign policy
        • rearmament
        • remilitarise rhineland
        • anschluss
        • takeover industrial Sudetenland from czechoslovakia
        • occupy prague
        • seizure of memel
        • claim Danzig and Polish corridor
      • impact on French and british opinion
        • British
          • initially satisfied
            • then realised it may be unfair
              • decided to help Germany recover
        • French
          • not harsh enough
            • wanted to disable Germany for their security
              • couldn't stand up to hitler
                • joined british
      • inconsistencies
        • separating east Prussia from Germany
          • by polish corridor
          • Czechoslovakia control sudetenland
            • 3.5 million germans
        • league controlling danzig
          • many germans
    • consequences of league failures in 1930s
      • Manchuria 1931
        • first sserious challenge from a great power
          • if league was firm, it would warn other powers
            • league failed
              • japan saw that the league is weak without USA and USSR
                • USSR joined league in 1934
                  • more concerned about agricultural and industrial reform
              • Italy and Germany encouraged
      • Abyssinia 1935
        • league imposed useless sanctions (coil and oil not taken away)
          • double dealing
            • hoare-laval pact
              • Italy and Germany encouraged
      • failure of league and rearmament
        • Britain and france didn't spend enough on defence due to world recession; money was scarce
          • both used collective security as an excuse for this
          • public opinion was against major arms spending
        • 1936, it was understood that rearmament was necessary
          • led to appeasement towards dictators
            • satisfying dictators' by treaties and pacts
    • how far was hitler's foreign policy responsible
      • aims
        • destroy treaty of versailles
          • break disarmament
            • conscription
            • army
            • navy
            • air force
          • remilitarizing rhineland
          • gain lost territory
        • greater Germany
          • all germans brought to reich
          • extend frontiers to german populated areas
            • Czechoslovakia
            • Poland
            • Austria
        • central European empire
          • Germany would become most powerful state in Europe if not the world
        • destroy communism
          • conflict with USSR
        • lebensraum
          • more land
            • recreation
            • cultivation
          • at expense of Poland and USSR
        • wanted france as a client state
          • more dominance
            • atlantic
      • direction towards war 1933-1935
        • 1933
          • refused to pay reparations
            • secretly rearming
          • left disarmament conference
            • secretly rearming
          • left league
          • 1934 jan
            • 10 year non-aggression pact with poland
              • safe to move against Austria and czechoslovakia
          • jul 1934
            • anschluss
              • murder of chancellor dollfuss
              • musslonin stopped hitlers invasion
              • hitler denied dollfuss's murder
          • jan 1935
            • saar plebiscite
              • according to treaty of verasailles
              • 90% wanted germany
              • Germany gained territory legally
          • mar 1935
            • conscription
              • 550k men
                • challenging allies
                  • formed stresa front
                  • mutual-assistance pacts
                    • france and USSR
                    • USSR and Czechoslovakia
              • air force
                • challenging allies
                  • formed stresa front
                  • mutual-assistance pacts
                    • france and USSR
                    • USSR and Czechoslovakia
          • jun 1935
            • anglo-german naval agreement
              • Germany can have 35% of britains navy
                • no agreement with france or italy
              • germany can have 45% of britains submarines
                • no agreement with france or italy
              • mussolini was encouraged to extend italian colonies this way
        • hitler revealing his true intentions1936-1938
          • successfully remilitarized rhineland
            • peaceful intentions proven by 25 year non-aggression pact with west
            • france had economic crisis
              • britain and france didnt see it worth it to risk european peace for this
          • Spanish civil war 1936-1939
            • started by general franco
              • supported by hitler and mussolini
                • fascist
                • hopes
                  • spain would be allied to germany, provide naval base, and hostility to france
                    • franco concentrated on domestic issues; neutral during WW2
                      • luftwaffe able to test dive bombing
                        • left britain and france. formed rome-berlin axis; very close to alliance
                          • alliance with italy
                            • move attention of western forces from central europe
                          • happened, and hitler could take control of austria and czechoslovakia
                            • move attention of western forces from central europe
                    • germany's armed forces could be tested in the war
                      • luftwaffe able to test dive bombing
                        • left britain and france. formed rome-berlin axis; very close to alliance
                          • alliance with italy
                            • happened, and hitler could take control of austria and czechoslovakia
                    • reality
                      • franco concentrated on domestic issues; neutral during WW2
                    • stalin supported republicans
              • anti-comintern pact 1936
                • japan and Germany against USSR
                  • Mussolini joined 1937
              • Anschluss 1938
                • almost 7 million german speakers in Austria
                  • mussolini was stopping hitler
                    • relationship with Mussolini improved since 1934
                      • hitler forced schuschnigg in 1938 to appoint seyss-inquart as interior minister
                        • Schuschnigg held a plebiscite
                          • hitler ordered his resignation and appointed seyss-inquart as chancellor
                            • seyss-inquart then asked Germany for help
                      • hitler sent army into Austria in 1938
                        • plebiscites confirmed anschluss
                          • more military and resources
                • hitler hated Czechoslovakia
                  • treaty of saint germain
                  • treaty of versailles
                  • aliied to USSR and France
                  • democracy
                  • Sudeten germans were discriminated
                    • hitler told them to protest
                      • didnt want war with USSR, france and britain
              • munich agreement
                • 1938
                  • Mussolini
                  • chamberlain
                    • 2 summit meetings
                      • 22 september
                        • rhineland
                          • chamberlain reported discussions in Bavaria
                          • hitler claims sudeten territories immediately
                            • czechs to withdraw from sudeten areas by 1st october to avoid conflict
                      • 15 September
                        • bavaria
                          • german populated area of sudetenland given to germans
                          • to be approved by britain, france, and czechoslovakia
                  • hitler
                    • 2 summit meetings
                      • 22 september
                        • rhineland
                          • chamberlain reported discussions in Bavaria
                          • hitler claims sudeten territories immediately
                            • czechs to withdraw from sudeten areas by 1st october to avoid conflict
                      • 15 September
                        • bavaria
                          • german populated area of sudetenland given to germans
                          • to be approved by britain, france, and czechoslovakia
                  • deladier
                • munich conference
                  • all 4 leaders as 2 summit meetings
                    • 1938 after summit meetings
                      • hitler get Sudeten areas over 10 days
                      • plebiscites in codominantly national areas
                      • remainder of Czechoslovakia to remain after polish and Hungarian claims
                • few hours later, chamberlain offered hitler to sign an agreement saying that they will promote european peace together, and will use "method of consultation" for mutual differences
                • good
                  • britain wasnt ready to have a war in 1938
                    • britain had incomplete air defenses; threatened by luftwaffe
                      • british dominions weren't united for war
                        • wouldve been seen as opposing self-determination, and to prevent german control over europe
                • bad
                  • britain and france abandoned czechoslovakia
                    • extreme appeasement
                      • incase of war britain would have support of 36 divisions in 1938 (500k troops)
                        • britain and france might have assistance or neutrality of USSR during war
            • Justification of appeasement
              • correcting injustices of verailles
                • by 1930s many thought Versailles was too harsh
                  • saw it as reasonable to cut  Germany some slack
                    • allow it to defend itself and frontiers
                    • injustice on germans was intensified by dominions, who were supporting self-determination
              • increasing militarism of japan and italy
                • britain would not win a war against japan and france with all their power, with france as their only ally
                • britain was seen as weak, but it had time to improve its air defences
              • popular
                • all appeasing governments led democratic countries, so public opinion was greatly considered
                  • most people wanted peace and not rearmament
              • threat of communism
                • USSR was a threat; spread of communism
                  • germany was strong and anti-communism
                • some politicians feared communism more than nazism
                  • germany was strong and anti-communism
              • why did britain and france adopt a policy to deter germany after 1939?
                • abandoned appeasement
                • invasion of czechoslovakia
                  • after loss of sudetenland, czechoslovakia began to break up
                    • however, still rich in industry and agriculture
                      • required by hitler
                        • hitler strikes in march 1939
                          • president Hacha bullied to give germany fortunes of czechoslovakia
                            • german army occupies Prague in 1939
                              • no justification for these actions. hitler had no right to take czechoslovakia
                • german/italian relations 1934-1939
                  • 1934
                    • Italy opposes Germany's invasion of austria
                  • 1935
                    • Italy joins stresa front against german rearmament
                    • germany continues trade with italy during abyssinian crisis
                  • 1936
                    • italy joins germany supporting franco in spanish civil war
                    • rome-berlin axis
                  • 1937
                    • mussolini visits hitler in berlin
                    • italy joins japan and germany signing anti-comintern pact
                  • 1938
                    • mussolini agrees to anschluss
                    • mussolini persuades hitler to agree to munich conference
                  • 1939
                    • pact of steel: italy's formal alliance with germany
                    • mussolini informs hitler he's not ready for war, so remains neutral when britain and france declare war on germany
              • examples
                • 1935
                  • anglo-german naval agreement
                  • hoare-laval pact
                • 1936
                  • passiveness towards reoccupation of rhineland
                • 1938
                  • passiveness towards anschluss
                  • munich agreement
              • Japanese and Italian aggression 1931-1939
                • japan
                  • 1931 manchuria
                  • 1937 rest of china
                • italy
                  • 1935 abyssinia
                  • 1939 albania
              • british-french gurantee to poland
                • Poland would be hitler's next target
                  • recreation by versailles
                  • had some of germany's former territory like west prussia
                  • polish corridor separated germany from east prussia
                  • danzig was mainly germans
                • britain and france tried to form an eastern alliance with USSR to protect poland
                  • stalin feared he would be in war with germany
                    • eastern alliance project failed
            • importance of nazi-soviet pact
              • Molotov-ribbentrop pact
                • 10 year non-aggression pact
                  • secret clauses of parting poland
                • stalin needed time to build up mititary
                  • anglo-french/german war would last long time
                    • stalin feared a simultaneous attack from japan
                      • hitler could invade poland without fear of USSR
            • why did france and britain declare war on germany in september 1939?
              • germany ignored the ultimatum and pursued the attack on poland
                • why was this seen as germany attempting to dominate europe?
                  • germany's invasion of the remainder of czechoslovakia had no justification
                    • poland's invasion was a continuation despite legitimate claims on danzig and polish corridor
              • why was hitler not deterred by british-french guarantees to Poland?
                • he didnt expect them to stick to their word
                  • they appeased his other violations
                  • they didnt have support of USSR

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