Arms Race, Solidarity and the End of the Cold War

  • Created by: joydada
  • Created on: 11-04-17 16:21
What was the Arms Race?
The race between the USA and the USSR to achieve the most advanced technology and weapons
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When did the Arms Race take place primarily?
50s and 60s
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When was NATO formed?
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When was the Warsaw Pact formed?
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Why was the Warsaw Pact formed?
To rival NATO and make sure that Eastern Europe was as secure as the West if a war were to break out
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What happened in 1957?
The USSR launched the world's first Artificial Satellite into space - Sputnik 1
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What happened in 1961?
The USSR put the first man into space- Yuri Gagarin
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What happened in 1969?
The US got the first man on the moon- Neil Armstrong
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What is Solidarity?
A polish trade union free from Soviet influence lead by Lech Walesa
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When and where was Solidarity founded?
September 1980, in Lenin Shipyard, Gdansk, Poland
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What did Solidarity achieve?
Solidarity sent 21 demand to the Polish government (free trade, right to strike, more pay, lower food prices) which they agreed to
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How big was Solidarity in January 1981?
9.4 million - 1/3 of all Polish workers
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Why was Solidarity established?
Economic depression in Poland and government increased meat prices
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What went wrong in 1981?
Poland had a new leader (General Jaruzelski) who saw Solidarity as political party rather than a trade union. Poland fell into a state of chaos (rationing was introduced and wages fell) and Solidarity was not seen to be making any difference
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What was the consequence of this?
Martial Law was introduced to regain the Soviet's control in Poland, Solidarity was banned and Walesa was imprisoned but was given the Nobel Peace Prize in 1983
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Why was Solidarity important?
The first real breakthrough of Communist rule across Eastern Europe. Walesa being in prison made him a figurehead for the campaign. It caused distrust of the government causing an uprising to be inevitable. Started a chain reaction within Europe.
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What were the 3 factors to the downfall of Communism in Eastern Europe?
Gorbachev (and his policies), Solidarity and the Economic Strain
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When did Gorbachev come into power?
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Why was Gorbachev different to other Soviet leaders?
He publicly denounced Stalinism and wanted to improve the state of Eastern Europe and Russia
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What was Perestroika?
Economic Restructuring to make the Soviet system of central planning more efficient
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What was Glasnost?
Freedom and Openness - granted free speech, abolished military conscription, freed 1000s of political prisoners, make public Stalin's atrocities
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Where the effective?
Glasnost was very effective but Perestroika was not due to the deep-rooted corruption of Soviet officials
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What effect did the Cold War have on the USSR?
The arms race was too expensive and almost bankrupted the Soviet Union - standards of living were low, farming was inefficient (grain had to be imported from the US)
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What else effected the Soviet economy?
The war in Afghanistan was a disaster that cost Billion and left 15,000 soviet troops dead
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What happened in 1988?
Gorbachev abandoned the Brezhnev Doctrine and told the UN that Eastern Bloc Nations has a choice to rule themselves
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What were the consequences of that in Poland?
Free elections were held in 1989 and Solidarity won
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What were the consequences of that in Germany?
The Berlin Wall was torn down in November 1989
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What were the consequences of that in Czechoslovakia?
Anti-Communist demonstrations took place and the government collapsed in December 1989
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When did the Warsaw Pact end?
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When was Germany officially unified?
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What happened to the USSR after the fall of Communism in 1989?
The main ethnic groups demanded independence (which Gorbachev tried to prevent) and Boris Yeltsin (President in 1991) demanded the break up of the USSR.
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Card 2


When did the Arms Race take place primarily?


50s and 60s

Card 3


When was NATO formed?


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Card 4


When was the Warsaw Pact formed?


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Why was the Warsaw Pact formed?


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