Water on the Land

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  • Water on the Land
    • Processes
      • Erosion
        • Hydraulic action
          • air is forced into crevices which weakens the wall causing it to crumble
        • Abrasion
          • rocks smash against the river bed and walls causing small bits to break off
        • Attrition
          • rock bang against eachother causing crumble of walls and the rock to round
        • Solution
          • small particles are dissolved in the water
      • Transportation
        • solution
          • small particles are dissolved into the river
        • Saltation
          • rocks bounce along the river bed
        • Traction
          • large boulders roll along the river bed
        • suspension
          • small particles are suspended in water
      • Deopsition
        • The load gets too heavy
        • The flow slows
          • due to decrease in gradient
          • outside of bend
    • River Profiles
      • long profile
        • shows how the relief and gradient of a river changes over a cast amount of space from source to mouth
      • cross profile
        • shows how the depth and shape of the river changes from source to mouth, in the upper course there is more vertical erosion so the channel is narrower, where as in the lover profile there is more lateral erosion, therefore it is wider and shallower
    • Landforms
      • Waterfalls
        • A layer of hard rock sits on top of the soft rock. The soft rock is more permeable therefore erodes faster undercutting the hard rock and leaving an overhang, eventually this overhang collapses into the plunge pool there the rocks crash against each other through attrition rounding each other off. Hydraulic action erodes the back wall og the waterfall as does abrasion, causing it to retreat and for a gorge
      • Gorges
        • A layer of hard rock sits on top of the soft rock. The soft rock is more permeable therefore erodes faster undercutting the hard rock and leaving an overhang, eventually this overhang collapses into the plunge pool there the rocks crash against each other through attrition rounding each other off. Hydraulic action erodes the back wall og the waterfall as does abrasion, causing it to retreat and for a gorge
      • Ox- Bow Lakes
        • the thin necks between the meanders eventually join together causing the water to flow in a straight line, eventually this cuts off from the bend in the river forming an ox bow lake which will eventually dry up and form marshy land
      • Levees
        • the river floods, depostition occurs, larger particles further in than smaller because the river loses energy, this creates a sloping effect, when the river goes down the banks appear to be raised and this is due to levees
      • Meanders
        • are typically found in the middle course of the river profile, the water flows faster on the outside of the bend and slower on the inside, the fast flow undercuts the bank forming sharper curves in the river, whereas the slow flow deposits material which creates a slip off slope
          • the thin necks between the meanders eventually join together causing the water to flow in a straight line, eventually this cuts off from the bend in the river forming an ox bow lake which will eventually dry up and form marshy land
    • water cycle
    • The UK's Water supply
      • Rain falls more heavily in the north west that in the South East
        • There are more people in the South East
          • Therefore in terms of water supply the North West are in surplus and the South East in deficit
            • The surplus water is stored in tanks and transported through pipes to the areas if deficit.
      • Dwent Waters
        • Is in the Peak District and was built to provide water to Sheffield and surrounding areas
        • The main Problems were that villages and farmland had to be flooded, this split up communities and was very expensive
        • The positive side to Derwent Waters is that it is a reliable water source, jobs were created in the process and it offers new leisure activities
    • Causes of Flooding
      • Physical
        • prolonged rainfall
        • heavy rainfall
        • relief
        • Snowment
      • Human
        • Deforestation
        • Urbanisation
    • Hard and Soft Engingeering
      • Hard Engineering
        • Expensive, permanentb.unsustainable
        • Dredging
        • artificial levees and embankments
        • Dams
        • Diversion Channels
        • The Thames in London, walls akond the river and a flood relief channel
      • Soft Engineering
        • Cheaper, faster, sustainable, more environmentally friendly
        • Aforrestation
        • flood plane zoning
        • flood warnings
        • Aforrestation along the Yarrow in Lancashire
    • Boscastle
      • North West Cornwall where the Jordan and Valencie meet
      • 84 cars washed away
      • 200mm of rainfall in 5 hours
      • Around 100 homes and buisnesses destroyed
      • 16th August
      • bridge rebuilt higher
    • Bangladesh
      • 2004
      • as a result of heavy rainfall, snowment on Hymalayas and deforrestation, only 6m above sea level
      • 7 million homes destroyed
        • 25 million homeless
      • $7 billion reparations
      • the river peaked three times causing yet more damage
      • 68% of the country flooded
      • cropsruined
      • international aid limited as the nearby airport was 2 meters underwater
  • Landforms
    • Waterfalls
      • Gorges
        • Ox- Bow Lakes
          • Levees
            • the river floods, depostition occurs, larger particles further in than smaller because the river loses energy, this creates a sloping effect, when the river goes down the banks appear to be raised and this is due to levees
          • Meanders
            • are typically found in the middle course of the river profile, the water flows faster on the outside of the bend and slower on the inside, the fast flow undercuts the bank forming sharper curves in the river, whereas the slow flow deposits material which creates a slip off slope

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