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  • Water
    • Hydrogen Bonding
      • 2 hydrogen atoms are covalently bonded to 1 oxygen atom
      • Hydrogen has a slight +ive charge and oxygen has a slight -ive charge - polar molecule
      • Water molecules form hydrogen bonds with each other
      • Ice - decrease in temperature = less kinetic energy: hydrogen bonds don't break as easily; less dense so it floats
      • Cohesion = the attraction of water molecules due to hydrogen bonding
      • Surface tension = the 'skin' on the surface of water formed as a result of hydrogen bonds pulling the surface molecules downwards
    • Properties of water
      • Solvent
        • Metabolic processes in all organisms rely on chemicals being able to react together in solution
        • Any molecule that is polar will dissolve in water
        • Water molecules cluster around the charged parts of the solute and keeps the solute molecules apart so they are dissolved
      • Liquid
        • Acts as an ideal liquid transport medium for multicellular organisms
      • Cohesion
        • Water molecules stick to each other creating surface tension
        • Makes long, thin water columns very strong and difficult to break
      • Freezing
        • Forms ice on the surface - water underneath becomes insulated and less likely to freeze
      • Thermal stability
        • Large bodies of water have fairly constant temperatures
        • Evaporation of water can cool surfaces by removing heat
      • Metabolic
        • Water takes part as a reactant in some chemical processes, e.g. in hydrolysis
    • Condensation and hydrolysis
      • Condensation = monomers are joined together by covalent bonds to produce a polymer, and a water molecule is released
      • Hydrolysis = a polymer is broken down into monomers by the breaking of covalent bonds and the addition of a water molecule


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