• Created by: gsemma
  • Created on: 17-03-19 12:59
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  • Water
    • Made of oxygen and hydrogen
      • Polar
        • oxygen pulls H electrons away from H nuclei giving H a slight positive charge
        • the unpaired electrons around the oxygen nucleus give a slight -ve charge
        • leads to H bonding
          • relatively weak so less energy is required to break 2 apart
          • long, so hold molecules at a greater distance apart then atoms within a molecule
          • properties from H bonding
            • thermal stability- in water, millions of bonds forming every second which can absorb energy meaning the energy needed to change the temp of water is high. Water has a more constant temp. providing a comfortable habitat.
            • Latent heat of vaporisation
              • to evaporate water, H bonds must be broken and this requires lot of energy. When a body evaporates water, lots of heat energy is used- cooling effect.
            • Ice floats
              • ice s less dense than water- H bonds in lattice shape, further apart then normal so ice floats. Can form an insulating layer to protect everything underneath.
    • a good solvent
      • the -ve and +ve nature of water can attach charged ions. When they are fully surrounded the ions have dissolved
    • Cohesive
      • attached to itself- leads to surface tension so some animals can walk on water. in plant cohesion- transpiration stream


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