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  • Water
    • Functions
      • Metabolite in condensation/hydrolysis reactions.
      • Solvent- important because most metabolic reactions take place in solution.
      • Temperature control- high latent heat of vaporisation, high specific heat capacity
      • Cohesive- helps water transport in plants
    • Structure
      • One atom of oxygen joined to two atoms of hydrogen by shared electrons
      • H atom has slight positive charge- shared negative H electrons pulled towards oxygen atom
      • Oxygen atom has slight negative charge- unshared negative electron
      • Polar- partial negative charge on one side, partial positive on other
    • Properties
      • Metabolite: required in hydrolysis/condensation.
      • High latent heat of vaporisation: takes a lot of energy to break H bonds, living organisms can lose heat by evaporation and prevent water loss
      • Resists changes in temperature- H bonds can absorb lots of energy, helps organisms who live in water maintain constant internal body temp,
      • Good solvent: Polar, positive end attracted to negative ion, negative end attracted to positive ion, ions totally surrounded by water molecules.
      • Cohesive- easy flowing, good transporter, travel up columns of xylem, high surface tension, forms droplets easily which evaporate


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