Was the congress a failure

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  • Was the Congress of Vienna a failure?
    • FRANCE REGAINING POWER
      • Failure
        • creation of the United Kingdom of the Netherlands: less than successful
          • 1820s: discontent among Belgians who resented enforcement of Dutch language and officials, protesting against 'unfair' taxation
          • religious differences: Catholic southern Belgians, Calvinist Dutch
          • August 1830: revolt when Dutch troops attempted to restore order
            • France declared it would intervene if Prussia sent troops to support Dutch king
              • although final course of action was compromise in 1833 (Luxembourg given to Holland, Belgium given neutrality and independence) - ran dangerously close to French reassertion of power
      • Success
        • First Treaty of Paris, May 1814
          • prior to 1815: Napoleon had exerted French influence across Europe by placing family members in power
            • Spain, Grand Duchy of Warsaw, Confederation of the Rhine, parts of Italy
          • powers had to tame French empire to create balance of power, but not so harshly that it provoked another French revolution/reasons for French expansion
          • forced France to accept restoration of Bourbon monarchy + 1792 borders + looted art
          • strong buffer states around France so it couldn't expand again like Napoleon had done
            • Belgium + Holland united to become United Kingdom of the Netherlands under Dutch king
            • frontiers reinforced with 'barrier' fortresses
            • Luxembourg to have a Prussian garrison
            • Prussian territory extended to strengthen Baden and Bavaria + protect Germany + could protect Netherlands if needed
            • former Republic of Genoa to be incorporated into P-S - strong Italian border against France
    • BALANCE OF POWER/STABILITY
      • Success
        • system of reward and compensation
          • Lombardy + Venetia --> Austria (to make up for loss of the Netherlands)
          • Sweden acquired Norway from Denmark to make up for loss of Finland to Russia
          • Prussia gained Saxony (40% population, 60% land)
          • Russia gained 'Congress Poland' for the sake of its security (after January compromise w Austria/Britain/France)
            • Poland granted a constitution
              • successes for Liberalism
                • German confederation of 38 states w united Diet under Austrian president
                  • success? consolidated power in Europe away from France, towards Austria
                • French charter: now liberal
          • success in that every country gained something: reduced likelihood of further dispute, creating balance of power in Europe
        • restoring heads of state
          • Bourbon monarchy in France
          • Pope in Papal states with Austrian troops
          • Ferdinand I restored to Naples
          • Habsburg monarchy: parma, Modena, Tuscany
            • Austrian influence!!
          • French charter: now liberal
          • German confederation of 38 states w united Diet under Austrian president
            • success? consolidated power in Europe away from France, towards Austria
      • Failure
        • ignoring liberal/nationalist ideas in favour of restoring monarchies led to short-term peace BUT later uprisings
          • why? - demonstrates that Vienna settlement j replaced France's tyranny with Austria's instead of implementing constitutional changes that some had expected?
          • 1830: Bourban monarchy overthrown in France - middle-class Louis-Phillipe ruled France
            • sparked Belgian/Polish/Italian revolts: disrupted stability
              • Italy: provisional liberal govt established itself when revolt spread through Modena/ Parma;
                • liberals pressed for unification + con. reform, thinking French would support
            • fears that France would expand, as had done w Napoleon: undermining VS
            • Metternich considered invasion, Tsar refused to recognised LNIII as king
              • shattered French-Russian cooperation from before
    • POWERS ONLY ACTING IN THEIR OWN INTERESTS
      • Failure
        • never really solved the problem: smaller countries usually excluded, used as pawns (e.g. Saxony)
        • Austria got the short end of the stick
          • militarily/financially unprepared for role as defender of central Europe v western France, eastern Russia
        • Concert splitting in two at the Congress of Troppau
          • Holy Alliance: Austria, Prussia, Russia - conservative, Christian
            • hereditary rule, monarchy, quashing nationalism
          • Britain and France - liberal
            • favoured democratic govts (like Britain's)
          • countries united by fear of Napoleon-style France re-emerging, but little else
        • disorganised: post-1820, countries sent observers instead of Foreign ministers; began taking action independently (e.g. France in Spain, despite Verona congress)
      • Success
        • Concert of Europe
          • previous conflicting interests had allowed Napoleon to conquer Europe so easily; had to resolve this
          • Second Treaty of Paris: powers renewed promise of cooperation for peace in Europe for the next 20 yers, re-establishing wartime Quadruple alliance
            • agreed to contribute 60k men if anyone attempted to overturn settlement/threaten European peace - suggests compromise
          • agreement to regularly meet and cooperate - commitment to international peace
            • e.g. quashing Belgian rebellion, resolving Greek Revolution w/o great power conflicts

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