War and Peace

An overview of war and peace for OCR. Considering the view of ethical theories.

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  • Created by: Yamanam
  • Created on: 28-04-13 15:06
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  • War and Peace
    • Just war - Aquinas
      • Jus in bello
        • Propotionality
          • The amount of damage inflicted should be proportianl to the good gained
        • Protect civilians
          • They are innocent
            • Should not be targeted
            • Should be protected from abuse
              • "The lives of innocent persons may never be taken directly, regardlness of the prupose alleged for doing so"
                • Should not be targeted
        • Weaponary
          • Weapons such as gas bombs should be avoided - they are indiscriminate
      • Jus ad bellum
        • Lawful authority
          • Someone who works for goverment and not a regular civilian
        • Just cause
          • Augistine devoloped this idea e.g. to protect those being used for unjust reasons
        • Right intention
          • "The right intention of those waging war is...promote good and avoid evil"
        • Last resort
          • War should only be attempted when every peaceful method of resolving conflict has been attempted
        • Likelihood of success
          • There must be a high chance of success
      • jus post bellum
        • Peace terms must be agreed
    • Pacificism
      • Selective pacafism
        • Oppose war involving weapons of mass destruction, also known as nuclear pacafism
      • Active pacafism
      • Relative pacafism
        • War and violence are wrong but sometimes it is the less of two evils
      • Absolute pacafism
    • Natural law apprach
      • Consider motives and means of conflict
      • In favour of just war
    • Kantian apprach
      • (Kant) against wars dwelling on property rights of rulers
        • Doesn't consider categorical imperative - it is not personal moral decisions but relations between states
          • Oppose standing armies (armies which exist during peaceful times as well as times of war
      • Oppose standing armies (armies which exist during peaceful times as well as times of war
      • Human autonomy
      • Duty
        • Positive of war as duty allows for heroism and selflessness
        • However a solider is not a autonomous being
          • Kant's theory often shows contradictions when applied practically
      • Pacific
        • Peace lovers, they are different to pacafists because they believe it is our duty to protect the innocent
      • Kant's theory seems more teleological and consequentalist when dealing with war
        • He says the act of war is unjust yetbelieves it changes soicety for the better because it workis towards a kingdom of ends
    • Christian apprach
      • Split
        • Against
          • Old testament Yaweh as a God is a bit of a murderous character
            • "So perish all your enemies"
          • "an eye for an eye"
        • For
          • Old testament, quite a bit through, and God seems peaceful
            • "Nation shall not lift up sword against nation"
          • However, these can be interpreted to support just war or pacafism
            • "Blessed are the peacemakers for they will be called children of God"
          • "You have heard "an eye for an eye" but i say to you, Do not resist an evildoer. If anyone strikes you, turn the other cheek"
    • Utilitarianism apprach
      • "Greatest good for greatest number"
        • War is morally good if it brings overall happiness and morally wrong if not
      • Rule utilitarianism
        • Richard Brandt and Richard Hare
          • Two levels of rules
            • Turning these conventions into particular examples and situations
            • Conventions that confom to Geneva convention and the Hague convention, ones which govern jus in bello
    • Strengths
      • Strives to protect the innocent
      • Encourages combatants to consider moral implications
      • Rejects the idea of war being purely savage - it attempts to create regulations
      • Emphais on human dignity
      • Moral integrity above power
      • Aims to make war about justified causes - not just revenge
    • Weaknesses
      • Why is a soilder not innocent espically if they had no choice but to fight? How can we distinguish the innocent from the guilty?
      • Some argue that war can never be justified
      • Just war has loop holes

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Thanks, Yama! 

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