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  • Variation
    • Interspecific is variation in different species where as intraspecific is variation within a species.
    • Causes of intraspecific variation
      • Environmental Factors
        • Genes set the boundaries of a phenotype but environmental factors determines the phenotype.
      • Genetic Factors
        • Meiosis causes variation due to crossing over and independent segregation
        • Mutations are a sudden change in DNA and may be passed on to the next generation.
        • Fusion of gametes is where an offspring takes characteristics from both parents, making a new
        • Alleles are different in each individual and create genotypes. This causes variation in phenotype.
    • Investigating Variation
      • Samples are used to save time.
      • Random sampling used to get a fair and representative sample
      • The mean is used to find an average .
        • A bell-shaped graph is a normal distribution curve as it is symmetrical to the mean.
        • The standard deviation is used to see how spread out the values are.
          • A small distribution mans that the values are close together.


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