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  • Variation
    • Interspecific variation
      • variation between organisms of different species
    • Intraspecific variation
      • variation between organisms within a species
    • Genetic variation
      • e.g. blood group
      • causes
        • alleles
        • mutations
        • meiosis
        • crossing over/ recombinants
    • Environmental variation
      • e.g. scars/ accent
      • most variation is caused by both genes and environment
    • Continuous variation
      • no defined categories
      • range of values
      • quantitative data
      • caused by a variety of genes, as well as the environment
      • e.g. height/ mass/ length
    • Discontinuous variation
      • caused by one/ few genes only
      • discrete categories, no intermediates
      • qualitative data
      • e.g. shape of bacteria


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