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  • Utilitarianism
    • Act
      • Jeremy Bentham
      • the greatest good for the greatest number
      • humans seek pleasure and shun pain
      • commensurability
      • felicific calculus: extent, duration, intensity, purity, fecundity, certainty, propinquity
    • Rule
      • J S Mill
      • tyranny of the majority
      • it is better to be a dissatisfied human than a satisfied pig
      • strong and weak rule
        • strong: never steal
        • weak: steal to survive
      • the only reason for a state to intervene in the affairs of an individual is to prevent harm
    • Preference
      • Peter Singer
      • someone doesn't seek pleasure to gain end result
        • eg marathon runner goes through pain when training
        • eg someone wears heels for beauty
    • Negative
      • Karl Popper
      • better to decrease pain than increase pleasure
      • starving community need food not DVDs
    • Social context
      • 18th century theory to help working classes
        • suffered from  high infant mortality
      • secular
      • consequentialist
      • relativist
    • Criticisms
      • Nick Bostrom
        • infinite amount of pleasure, infinite amount of pain
      • Bernard Williams
        • Jim's Predicament - human agency
      • Daniel Dennett
        • can't predict consequences - 3 mile island
      • John Rawls
        • cinema - cannot aggregate utility
      • Derek Parfit
        • world A, world B, world Z
    • Link
    • Strengths
      • democratic - but can lead to tyranny eg Nazis
      • not based on controversial metaphysical concepts
      • consequentialist
        • 'real term' effects eg scientist who adds fluoride to water


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