• Created by: mariam26
  • Created on: 29-09-20 19:24
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  • Utilitarianism
    • Rule Utilitarianism
      • John Stuart Mill
        • 1806 - 73
        • Believed in Rule Utilitarianism
        • "Better to be be a human being dissatisfied than a pig satisfied."
        • Created the idea of higher and lower pleasure
        • Bentham's student
      • Higher and Lower pleasures - there are different levels of pleasure
        • Higher - Graduating University
        • Lower - Finishing a TV series
      • We should form rules to follow everyday on the basis of the utilitarian maxim but in more extreme situations we should try to rise above the situation and evaluate things on the specifics.
      • The Harm Principle
        • The single principle that should inform the development of rules to maximise utility = HARM PRINCIPLE
          • Society has the right to intervene when you want to harm someone else
          • Society has no right to intervene when it comes to you (i.e. drinking, smoking etc)
    • Act Utilitarianism
      • Perform the act that will lead to the greatest balance of good over evil
      • Jeremy Bentham
        • 1748 - 1832
        • Created the Hedonic Calculus
        • Social reformer, opposed slavery, opposed punishment, supported women's rights
        • Believed GOOD = PLEASURE
      • Hedonic Calculus
        • Bentham attempted to a develop a hedonic calculus for determining which act should be performed using 7 criteria
          • Intensity - How strong is the pleasure?
          • Duration - How long will the pleasure last?
          • Certainity - How likely is it that the pleasure will truly happen?
          • Propinquity - How soon will the pleasure happen?
          • Richness - How probable is it that pleasant sensations will follow?
          • Purity - How unlikely is it that the action will lead to pain and not pleasure?
          • Extent - How many people will be affected?
      • Self and Other Regarding Acts
    • Preference Utilitarianism
      • Peter Singer
        • Famous, contemporary utilitarian from Australia
        • Rational thinker
        • Believes that you should take the needs and preferences of others as much as your own
      • Goodness = maximising preferences and interests of all
        • Happiness is maximised by allowing to satisfy as many as their first preferences as possible
      • Utility, not rights, is the deciding principle
      • Critique
        • What about the rights of people such as infants or the handicapped, who cannot state their preferences?
    • In utilitarianism the action is usually seen as insignificant
      • Right/wrong depends on the consequence of the act


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