Utilitarianism

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  • Utilitarianism
    • Utility
      • Principle of Utility - The greatest good for the greatest number.
      • Bentham
        • Act utilitarianism
          • Act utilitarianism uses the outcome of an action to asses whether it is right or wrong.
            • Thus, there are no necessary moral rules except one;
              • we should always seek the greatest happiness for the greatest number in all situations.
        • Principle of Utility - The greatest good for the greatest number.
    • The hedonic calculus
      • Act utilitarianism
        • Act utilitarianism uses the outcome of an action to asses whether it is right or wrong.
          • Thus, there are no necessary moral rules except one;
            • we should always seek the greatest happiness for the greatest number in all situations.
      • Weighs up the pain and pleasure generated by theavailable moral actions to find the best option. Itconsiders several factors:
        • DURATION- how long will the pleasure orpain last?
        • RICHNESS- will it lead to other pleasures?
        • PURITY- how free from pain is it?
        • REMOTENESS- how soon will it happen?
        • INTENSITY- how intense is the pleasure orpain?
        • CERTAINTY- how certain is the pleasure?
        • EXTENT- how many people are affected bythe pleasure/ pain?
    • Rule utilitarianism
      • Mill
        • Utility
          • Bentham
          • Qualitative “It is better to be a human being satisfied than a pig satisfied, better to be Socrates dissatisfied than a fool satisfied.”
          • Higher and lower pleasures Quality is more important than quantity when it came to pleasure. The pleasures of the mind are far superior to the gratification of the body’s desires.
        • Rules should be formed using utilitarian principles for the benefit of society.
          • As long as the rule promotes justice and is fair then it should be followed
            • . An act is good if it complies with a justified rule.
              • A rule is good if it promotes more goodness than other rules or no rule at all.
                • Sometimes a bit of pain may be acceptable if it leads to justice.

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