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  • Created by: Iqra
  • Created on: 12-12-12 18:29
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  • Using item A and elsewhere, assess sociological views of crime reduction strategies
    • Introduction
    • Situational crime prevention
      • Focus on specific crimes and then alter the environment
      • Reducing crime opportunities
      • Target hardening measures include locking doors, security guards, reshaping the environment
      • Criticism
        • may simply displace crime moving it do different places, times, victims types of crime etc
        • Explains opportunistic petty street crime but not white collar crime, corporate and state crime.
        • Not all criminals make rational calculations before committing crime
          • Examples : Violence or drug related crimes
    • Environmental crime prevention
      • Wilson and Kelling
        • Broken Window Thesis
          • signs of disorder show no one cares
            • Prompting decline
            • Graffiti, begging, littering, vandalism
        • Solution is to crack down on any disorder through environmental improvement
          • abandoned cars towed away straight away.
          • Zero tolerance policing. Prevents serious crime taking root and also halts neighbourhooddecline
    • Social and Community crime prevention
      • Deal with social conditions that prevent future crime
      • Poverty
        • full employment policies
      • The Perry Pre School
        • 2yr olds intellectual enrichment.
        • Longitudinal  study into adulthood showed fewer arrests for violent crime, property crime and drugs
    • Purpose of punishment
      • Detterance
        • Prevent future crime from fear of further punishment
        • Incapicitation
          • Removing capacity to reoffend
          • Retribution
            • Society is entitled to take revenge for the offender having breached its moral code
      • Rehabilitation
        • Reforming, reeducating offenders
    • Durkheim
      • Function of punishment is to reinforce social solidarity and reinforce shared values by moral outrage
        • 2 types of society
          • Retributive justice
            • Traditional society has strong collective conscience, so punishment is severe and vengeful.
          • Restitutive justice
            • Modern society's individuals have interdependence where crime damages should be be repaired through the justice system
    • Marxism
      • Punishment is part of the 'repressive state apparatus'.
        • This defends the ruling class property against the lower classes
      • Form of punishment reflects economic base
        • Under capitalism, prison is the dominant punishment because time is money and offenders 'pay by doing time.
    • Foucault
      • The panoptican
        • Prisoners cells are visible to the guards but not vice versa
      • Argues that other institutions like mental asylums etc follow this power and disciplinary power has affected the human soul.
      • Sovereign Power
        • Monarch exercised physical power over people's bodies and punishment was visible spectacle
      • Disciplinary Power
        • Seeks to govern not just the body through surveilliance but also the mine
  • Broken Window Thesis
    • signs of disorder show no one cares
      • Prompting decline
      • Graffiti, begging, littering, vandalism


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