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Jock Young:

The audience become sensitized to media violence being wrong as the criminal always gets caught in the end. (Gives them a thrill) 

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Elizabeth Newson:

The audience begin to believe that media violence is accepted and normal due to the amount of times they see it causes the drip drip effect. 

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Hyperdermic Syringe Model

Lipman and Laswell:

The media has a direct effect on its audience and the audience has no choice but to believe what they see in the media. 'Mindless robots' War of the worlds on the radio caused a moral panic. 

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Sophisticated Media Users


The audience can tell the difference between fiction and non fiction programmes therefore they can tell that violence is wrong. 

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Catharsis Effect


Violent media helps release emotions therefore it is good. E.g holding a controller and shooting people in a game releases emotions which cause you to be less violent.


Columbine masacre- tried to recreate the game 


Then killed themselves after as they knew they was going to get caught and punished as thats what happens on the tv. 

The access to violent media has increased however crime rates overall have decreased which shows that media violence does not have an affect on everybody. 

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Aggression study


Found out that children who saw violent behaviour was more likely to copy the behaviour than children that had not seen aggressive behaviour. 

e.g- Batman killing (saw violence in batman and tried to recreate) 

A02: must be other explanations for this behaviour as not everybody who sees violence behaves in the same way.

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