Urban Transport Solutions

Refers to AQA A2 Geography

World Cities Option

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  • Urban Transport Solutions
    • Road schemes and restricted access
      • London has suffered chronic transport problems for many years, so, in the 1970s and 1980s, new radial routes were built around the city to ease congestion.
        • Building of the M25 (London Orbital Motorway) actually increased the number of cars on the roads.
        • Plans for other radial routes were abandoned in the 1990s, although the M25 was widened in some places.
      • CONGESTION CHARGE introduced in central London in 2003, and extended to West London in 2007. Currently £10 day, Monday-Friday, 7am-6pm.
        • Likely to be adopted by other cities but rejected by Manchester in 2008.
      • On a small scale, bus lanes with priority junctions are an effective way of encouraging public transport use and reducing the number of cars on the road.
    • Road traffic management schemes
      • In Oxford, and other towns that do not have the option of a new ring road, bypasses and inner ring roads may already exist, often aided by upgrading existing routes.
      • Strategies introduced to solve traffic problems in smaller towns and cities include...
        • Strict on street parking controls
        • Expensive Car Parks
        • One-way systems
        • Traffic-Calming Measures
        • Park and Ride Schemes
    • Streamlining of public transport
      • 30 years ago, Public Transport Authorities Authorities were set up to maintain efficient public transport within their areas.
        • In Mersyside, Mersey Travel is responsible for the Mersey Tunnel, the Mersey ferries, MerseyRail and the bus travels.
          • One third of the area's population live within 1km of a MerseyRail Station, used for public access to the city centre, via. three main lines.
          • Commercial bus companies operate bus services, with authority provision for the disabled.
          • 1 million people vehicles pass through the Mersy Tunnels per year, and the tolls provide a small profit. The Mersy ferries run at a small loss.
    • New mass transit systems
      • Have been used to provide low-cost public transport from the suburbs to the city centre.
      • Examples include the supertram in Sheffield and the Metrolink in Manchester.
      • British traffic managers have taken a number of years to recognise the benefits of modern electrified tram systems.
      • Germany, France and Switzerland have tram systems which have reduced traffic congestion and provided effecive public transport for years.

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