Geography: World Cities

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  • Created by: gemma-t96
  • Created on: 31-10-14 15:44

Global Pattern of Cities

Agglomeation: City is so large it merges with others to form a city region
Megacity, Millionaire and World City

Functions of World Cities: Resource- access knowledge to grow e.g. innovation
Codified knowledge - carried by spread of technology, available to most people
Tacit knowledge - development dependant on discussion and face-face contact 
learning - leaning networks e.g. uni/collaeg
spatial proximity centres - CBD's tacit knowledge dominates, new ideas are created. Likely when there is a high concentration of people which causes more opportunities. 

 World Cities characterised in 3 ways: Low value activites
High synergy levels
Wide range of jobs (tendancy towards polarised labout force)

Synergy: Applied to economies: 2+ companies, groups/ individuals achieve mutual benefits by working cloesly together  

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Link between economic development & urbanisation

City growth occurred due to: Industrial/ agricultural revolution, new forms of power, better transport
Economic forces create synergy & processes = urban growth. New functions within a city also creates pop growth

Always positive?
 Dreadful conditions in both urb and rural places, loss of farming jobs, migration of the city = swollen work force and depressed wages. Overcrowding and slum housing

Mid 20th Centuary
South America, Africa and Asia have continued this process but its not smooth. Many suffer from rural poverty with lack of opportunitues which has pushed people out of cities. Lack of housing and poor infrastructure, water and sewers are also very dirty. There were opportunities for economic development but this has been over-ruled by urbanisation.  

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The increase in the population of a countries population that live in urban areas

Causes: Natural increase, lower age profile, young adults migrate when fertile. Rural- urban migration

Push factors- away from rural areas
  Poverty caused by pop growth, agricultural problems, natural disaster, war/ civil unrest

Pull - attract to urban areas
Prospect of: Employment, earning money in the informal sector, better quality of life and social pressure 

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Urban Land Use Models

Simplified version of a pattern of land use within a city. Main land use is allocated zones and shown using colour/ shade

Burgess 1924 - rings, CBD centre, high classes on outskirts based in Chicago 

Hoyt 1939 - sector model, CBD centre, no designated pattern

Mann 1965 - based on London, older buildings further out from the centre

Harris & Ulman 1945 multiple nuclei - not one dominant area, all intertwine 

LEDC model - Brazil, poor on outskirts CBD in the centre

Bid Rent - land price determined on the type of land use. Commerce,industry & residential compete

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Sub- Urbanisation

Movement from inner to outer parts causing outward growth of urban areas and englulf smaller areas. Facilitated by development of public transport & car ownership. Common in MEDC's

  Causes: Better communication, businesses on cheaper land, operation cost in suburbs

Push: Congestion/ pollution, perception of low life quality in centres

Pull: Low land cost, more job opportunities & better education

Positive: Lifestyle improvement, less pollution
Negative: Urban spread, urban decay, lower income and high pollution
Solutions: Green belts, imit growth of the fringe of a city along with brownfield redevelopment 

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Counter Urbanisation

Movement out of cities to surrounding areas, started in MEDC's 1950

Causes: Movement of employment to rural areas, people move to R then commute. Those who move are usually mobile, young families with children

Reasons: Car ownership, growth in technology, public transport, people move when retired, new business parks on the edge of the city so work is closer for people


+ better servicies e.g. gas & TV, support local facilities, better cultural diversity/ awareness

- House prices increase, traditions lost (community split) pop increase and more pollution/ traffic

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Re- Urbanisation

People move into the city centre as part of urban regeneration

Urban deprivation: Inequalities occur in all urban areas e.g. social segregation
Spatial segregation: Housing, wealthy have a choice, poor do not
Environment - Victorian houses now split into flats, gentrification causes housing to change over time
Ethics - low paid jobs = cheap housing, clustered areas persist for years

Better housing from groups / individuals and not supported by government & supporting bodies
+ Social mix affluent, higher status services & generates employment
- low income = hard to find homes, friction between 'newcomers' and original residents 

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Hierachy: corner shopm S,U parade, superstore, retail park, town centre, out of town 

1970's- superstore, one stop shopping 1980 - non food retail expanded
1990 - large OofT centres built on periphery, close to motorways
21st century - e-commerce alongside farmers markets

Causes of Decentralisation
Increased mobility, shop at petrol stations, shopping habits (monthly trips, freezers & ready meals)
Nature of retail: Limited super market companies, compete between businesses

Doughnut effect
Commercial activities concentrated to the outskirts. OofT common leads to a hollow empty area first seen in USA but becomming more common in UK cities

Out of Town Retail
 Cheap land, brownfield, free parking, public transport, lesuire and shopping 

Box Mall
Not all under one roof - box shaped retail outlets, often specialised goods near lesuire activites 

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Town Centres Fighing Back

CBD has major buildings which are easily accessible, not static but grows outwards. In decline due to OofT development which causes segregation 

CBD in decline
 Loss of officies to peripheral locations, high cost of upkeep, centre seen as unsafe and dirty and urban sprawl due to suburbs

Fighting back
 Flowers, pedestrianisation, indoor shopping malls, CCTV, street decoration, gentrification as well as conservation schemes

Other functions of a CBD include: lesuire, nightlife, work, homes and entertainment 

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Waste and Transport

 517kg produced per household a year. 40% recycled in 10/11 50% local authories had waste in landfill.  2009: 7 tonnes of food waste was produced

Influences of waste: Pop increase, resource exploitation, migration, education, industrial growth

Disposal, recovery, recycling, reuse, minimisation and prevention

UK 1990-2000 GHG's rised by 11% but total GHG fell by over 21%
 52% increase of people using national rail  
2011: 35% fewer casualites than 2001 but traffic rose by 3.2%

Increase in urban traffic
Ownership, working pop, economic growth and better income, number of journeys increasing

Solutions: Congestion charge, bus lanes, 1 way systems, public transport  

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