Urban Air

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  • Urban Air Quality
    • Particulate Pollution in Urban Areas
      • particles are tiny pieces of solids and tiny droplets of liquids floating in the air
      • more particles found in urban areas than rural areas. around 10-40ug/m3
      • sources include:
        • vehicle exhausts
          • FINE PARTICULATES
        • burning of refuse, cigarettes and fuel
          • FINE&COARSE PARTICULATES
        • Construction, mining and quarrying
          • COARSE PARTICULATES
        • Plants and moulds
          • COARSE PARTICULATES
      • particulates can cause health problems
        • coarser particules usually filtered out by nose but finer can enter lungs= asthma, bronchitis etc
    • PHOTOCHEMICAL SMOG
      • pollutants such as nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides and hdrocarbons come from burning fossil fuels
        • when these come into contact with sunlight, the UV light causes them to break down into harmful chemicals (e.g. ozone) which=photochemical smog
      • Photochemical smog is a problem in many cities. More common n places with hot and sunny climates as there is more sunlight
        • E.G. MEXICO CITY(MEXICO), BARCELONA (SPAIN)
        • These locations often have a temp. inversion (layer of warm air trapped below denser cooler air) which keeps pollutants at ground level
      • linked to health problems such as breathing difficulties, respiratory disorders and headaches
    • WAYS TO REDUCE AIR POLLUTION
      • CONGESTION CHARGING
        • people charged to use vehicles in certain places at certain times
        • reduce road traffic--London reduced by 15%
          • but people travel around it increasing traffic there
      • PEDESTRIANISATION
        • vehicles restricted from entering certain places at certain times
        • Manchester, Liverpool, Cardiff
        • can lead to shops having lower customers as only get there by foot
      • PUBLIC TRANSPORT IMPROVEMENTS
        • encourage people to use public transport
        • improved bus services
          • park and ride schemes
        • Metrolink
          • Bury and Alti line taken 2.6million cars off road
      • LEGISLATION
        • Laws aim to reduce pollution by limiting emissions
          • UK Clean Air Acts 1956&1968
            • introduced smoke control areas where only smokless fuels can be burnt and use of tall chimneys so pollutants dispersed higher
          • Road Vehicles Regulations
            • MOT emission test
      • ALTERNATIVE FUELS
        • Petrol and diesel replaced with cleaner fuels
          • Biofuels
            • produced from plants
          • Electric vehicles
          • Liquefied petroleum gas
            • gas produced from fossil fuels lower emissions

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