changes to urban living conditions between 1855 - 1964

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  • CHANGES TO URBAN LIVING CONDITIONS BETWEEN 1855 - 1964
    • in comparison to places like Britain and America, Russia was still a rural country
      • with only 15% of the population living in towns and cities, rather than 80% in Britain and 40% in the USA
    • by 1914  there were over 1000 towns containing about 2 million buildings
      • over 50% of the housing was made from wood
        • these were prone to fire damage
      • most houses and streets were lit by kerosene lamps
      • only 74 towns had access to electricity
      • only 35 had access to gas
      • about 200 had piped water and 38 had a sewerage system
      • NICK II
        • lots of diseases spread due to urbanisation
          • Urbanisation means an increase in the proportion of people living in urban areas compared to rural areas
          • for example there were over 100,000 deaths due to cholera in St Petersburg in 1910
    • lots of diseases spread due to urbanisation
      • Urbanisation means an increase in the proportion of people living in urban areas compared to rural areas
      • for example there were over 100,000 deaths due to cholera in St Petersburg in 1910
    • special workers housing was built near industrial cities
      • these houses were built quickly and were often overcrowded and insanitary
    • the decree of Land by the Bolsheviks in 1917 focused on what the party wanted to do about housing
      • LENIN
      • dwellings in towns and cities were to be taken from private owners
        • and handed over to the proletariat under the guidance of the soviets
    • improvements made to housing by Lenin were reversed by Stalin
      • the Stalinist policy allocated space rather than rooms to individuals and families
        • especially within the new high rise tenements
      • overcrowding became the norm once again
        • in Moscow in the mid 1930's, different families often had to share one room
    • the second world war resulted in 25 million Russians being made homeless
      • the housing stock doubled from  1955 to 1964 and the principals of communal living were abandoned
      • Krushchev
      • however the introduction of housing co-operatives tended to favour the professional classes as they were the only ones that could afford the deposit

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