Social divisons and Developments: 1855 - 1894

  • Created by: GE2000
  • Created on: 08-05-19 10:56
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  • Social Developments 1855 - 1894
    • The Landed Elite
      • Personal landholdings had declined  to pay off debts and others had abandoned farming to persue more professional occupations
        • Mnay Nobles went into buisness - 1882 - 700 nobles owned buisnesses in Moscow and 2500 were employed in commerce, industry and transport.
        • Many went into state service - the Zemstva and the provisional governments.
      • 1880 - 1/5th of all university students came frome hereditry nobility
      • Although subject to changes, the Elite still retained much of their previous wealth.
    • The Middle Class
      • With Urban and Industrial Increase, Russia's middle class grew.
        • Doctors, Bankers, teachers, administrators
        • Made up half a million of the Russian Population - 1897 census
        • Government contracts to expand the railways and state loans to set up facotries provided opportunities for the new Middle Class
    • The Urban Working Class
      • The expansion of industry was accompanied with a growth in the urban population - urban workers were still very low amount at this period.
      • by 1864, one in three inhabitants of St Petersburg were peasants by birth, continuting to rise.
      • Conditions in the cities were grim factories paid little.
        • There were reforms - reduction in excessive fines, abolishment of child labour and the appointment of indepectors to check on living and working conditions
          • This did little to benefit the lives of the workers. Although illegal, workers still went on strike - 33 a year between 1886 and 1894
    • The Peasantry
      • Kulaks
        • The wealthier type of peasant. Used the peasant's land bank to purchase land, emploued labour
          • Acted as Pawn Brokers to poorer peasants, buying grain in the autumn to provide money but selling it back in the spring for inflated prices.
            • If a client could not pay, the Kulaks often took their land.
      • The poorest peasants
        • Life was becoming harsher as they became landless labourers, dependent on others.
          • 1880s - 2/3 ex-serfs were unable to feed thier household without falling into debt.
          • Living Standards varied - former state peasants did better than private ones.
          • Mortality rates were higher than any other country in europe - life expectancy for men:27 women: 29
            • England's life expectancy: 45


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