Tests for Anions and Cations

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  • UNKNOWN CHEMICAL
    • Ammonia gas test
      • Damp red litmus paper turns blue
    • Flame test
      • Bright red
      • Golden yellow
      • Lilac
      • Brick red
      • Blue-green
    • Add Sodium Hydroxide solution (NaOH)
      • Warm slightly
        • Ammonia is given off
          • Ammonium ions (NH4+) present
          • Ammonia gas test
            • Damp red litmus paper turns blue
          • Smell
      • Coloured precipitate
        • Light blue
        • Reddish-brown
        • Sludgy green
    • Halide test (G7 elements)
      • Add dilute nitric acid (HNO3) and silver nitrate (AgNO3)
        • White precipitate
        • Cream precipitate
        • Pale yellow precipitate
    • Carbonates test
      • Add dilute HCL acid
    • Sulfate test
  • Iodide (I-)
    • Pale yellow precipitate
    • I- + Ag ==> AgI
  • White precipitate
    • Add Barium Chloride (BaCl)
  • Barium Sulphate
    • White precipitate
      • Add Barium Chloride (BaCl)
    • Ba2 + + SO4 2- ==> BaSO4
  • Copper (II) (Cu2+)
    • Light blue
  • Iron (II) (Fe2+)
    • Sludgy green
  • Iron (III) (Fe3+)
    • Reddish-brown
  • Lithium (Li+)
  • Sodium (Na+)
  • Potassium (K+)
  • Calcium (Ca+)
  • Copper (Cu+)
  • Red
    • Blue
  • Carbonates test
    • Add dilute HCL acid
  • Key
  • CATIONS

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