Unit 1 definitions

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  • Created by: Rachel98
  • Created on: 20-05-15 15:11
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  • Unit 1 Key Definitions
    • Atomic Number
      • Number of protons in the nucleus of an atom
    • Mass Number
      • Number of the protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom
    • Isotopes
      • Atoms with the same number of protons but different numbers of nutrons
    • Relative atomic mass
      • average mass of an atom of an element   /  1/12th. the mass of an atom of carbon- 12
    • Relative molecular mass
      • average mass of a molecule/  1/12th the mass of an atom of carbon-12
    • s/p/d- block element
      • An element with the outermost electron in the s/p/d sub shell
    • Empirical Formula
      • Simplest whole number ratio of each element in a compound
    • Molecular Formula
      • The actual number of atoms of each element in a molecule
    • Electronegativity
      • The ability of an atom to attract the shared pair of electrons in a covalent bond
    • 1st ionisation energy
      • enthalpy change needed to remove 1 mole of electrons from 1 mole of gaseous atoms to form 1 mole of gaseous unipositive ions
    • Ionic Bond
      • electrostatic force of attraction between oppositely charged ions
    • Covalent Bond
      • a shared pair of electrons between two atoms
    • Dative covalent Bond ( Co-ordinate bond)
      • A covalent bond where both electrons come from one atom
    • Metallic bond
      • electrostatic force of attraction between positive metal ions and delocalised electrons
    • Polar bond
      • Uneven distribution of charge due to a difference in electronegativity
    • Structural isomers
      • Compounds with the same molecular formula but with structural formula
    • Position Isomers
      • Compounds with the same molecular formula but with the functional group in a different position
    • Chain Isomers
      • Compounds with the same molecular formula but has a different arrangement of the carbon skeleton
    • Functional group isomers
      • Compounds with the same molecular formula but with the atoms arranged into different functional groups
    • Hydrocarbon
      • A molecule that is made up of carbon and hydrogen atoms only
    • Homologous Series
      • A group of organic molecules with the same general formula, similar chemical properties and show a gradual change in physical properties down the group
    • Endothermic reaction
      • Heat is absorbed, temperature decreases
    • Exothermic Reaction
      • Heat is given out, temperature increases
    • Atom Economy
      • (mass of desired product/ total mass of reactants) x100
    • % Yeild
      • ( Actual mass of product / Maximum theoretical yield) x100
    • Ionic Lattice
      • A regular three dimensional arrangement of positive and negative ions
    • Metallic Lattice
      • A regular three dimensional arrangement of positive ions surrounded by delocalised electrons
    • Simple molecular lattice
      • A regular three dimensional arrangement of molecules held together by intermolecular forces

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