Unit 1.2.5

HideShow resource information
View mindmap
  • Unit 1.2.5
    • Function of skeleton
      • Movement: Bones meet as joints, help generate speed, force, power.
        • Tendons attach bones to muscles.
      • Support: Skeleton supports body standing, sitting, or lying. Bones give body shape and size.
      • Protection: Bones protect vital organs from damage.
        • Skull:Brain, Ribs:Heart Lungs Stomach Liver, Sternum:Heart Left lung, Spine:CNS
    • Joints and Movement
      • Joint: A place where 2 or more bones meet.
        • For joints to be smooth, a layer of cartilage covers the end of bones.
          • Acts as a cushion to stop friction.
        • Also surrounded by synovial fluid to lubricate joint.
      • Hinge joints
        • Elbow: Flexion, extension. Knee: Flexion, extension.
      • Ball and socket joints
        • Connected bones covered with cartilage, held together by ligaments.
        • Shoulder: Extension, flexion, adduction, abduction, rotation.
    • Effect of exercise
      • Bones grow for about 18 years.
      • Exercise increases bone density. When bones heavier, stronger. Ligaments and tendons thicker and stronger.
      • Weight-lifting when young causes uneven growth.
    • Importance of weight-bearing exercise
      • Bones lighter with age, density and strength reduces.
      • Weight-bearing exercise puts pressure on bones, strengthens them.
        • Delays/Prevents osteoporosis.
    • Fractures
      • Fracture are caused by an excessive impact or twist.
        • Symptoms: Immobile limb, Extreme pain, Swelling, Bruising, or Deformity.
      • Types of fractures.
        • Simple: Impact. Along one line, no displacement, not through skin.
        • Compound: Impact.Through skin, can lead to infection and blood loss.
        • Greenstick: Twist. Bends rather than breaks.
        • Stress: Overuse. Happen when increasing intensity or playing on unfamilliar surfaces, can be osteoporosis or eating disorders.
    • Joint injuries
      • Movement passed joint range or overuse can result in torn/pulled ligaments and tendons.
      • Tennis/Golfer's elbow: Overuse of tendons at elbow. Racquet wronghandle size. Tennis:Outside elbow, Golfer's:Inside elbow.
      • Dislocation: Bones at a joint is displaced. Looks deformed and is painful.
      • Sprain: Damage to ligaments at a joint. When ankle/wrist twisted suddenly.
      • Torn cartilage: When joint twisted excessively when changing direction at speed.
      • Treatment for minor injuries: Rest Ice Compression, Elevation
    • Diet
      • Calcium maintain bone strength and density.
      • Vitamin D helps absorb Calcium.


No comments have yet been made

Similar Physical Education resources:

See all Physical Education resources »See all Skeletal system - bones and joints resources »