Types of Memory

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  • Types of Memory
    • Short Term Memory
      • Holds information for a few seconds
        • Duration: 18-30 seconds
        • Encoding: Acoustic
      • Temporary and fragile
      • Research
        • Miller - Digit Span Technique. Found people remember 5-9 items. RPs had to recall digits they were shown briefly
        • Peterson and Peterson - Trigrams. Showed RPs trigrams to remember and then gave them a distracting task to prevent rehearsal. Most forgotten after 18 seconds
        • Baddely - Showed RPs lists of words to memorise, some sounded similar and some different. RPs struggled to remember words that sounded similar - suggests info is encoded acoustically
    • Long Term Memory
      • Can store information for many years
        • Duration: Up to a lifetime
        • Does not rely on rehearsal like STM
        • Encoding: Semantic
        • Capacity: Appears to be unlimited
          • Difficult to prove
      • Research
        • Bahrick - Showed adults an old school photo. Found that people could correctly identify classmates 48 years later 70% of the time. Shows LTM has a long duration
        • Baddely - Showed RPs lists of words to memorise, some had similar meanings and some had different meanings. RPs struggled to remember words that had similar meanings - suggests info is encoded semantically
      • Types of LTM
        • Episodic - Experiences
        • Procedural - Skills
        • Semantic - Knowledge
        • Evidence
          • HM - shows that procedural memory is a separate store. HM's hippocampuswas removed from his brain to help with epilepsy. He could no longer form new episodic or semantic memories, but could form new procedural ones - learnt how to mirror-draw
          • Vicari - reported the case of an 8 year old girl with brain damage due to removal of a tumour. She could not form new episodic memories, but she could recall and form new semantic memories - suggests that they are separate stores.

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