Cellular organisation of tissues

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  • Cellular organisation of tissues
    • Junctions
      • Tight Junctions
        • Zonula Occludens
        • Seals paracellular pathways
        • Segregates apical and basolateral polarity
        • Adhesion belts
          • Usually basal to apical tight junction
          • Transmembrane adhesion molecule is cadherin which associates with the microfilament cytoskeleton
          • Master junction - controls the stability of other junctions
      • Gap Junctions
        • Macula Communicans
        • Cluster of pores made of 6 subunits
        • Passage of ions and small molecules
      • Desmosomes
        • Macula adherins
        • Linked to intermediate filament cytoskeleton
        • Cadherin like transmembrane molecule
      • Synapses
        • Junctions between neurones
    • Cytoskeleton
      • Microtubules
        • Polymers of a and b tubulin
        • Found in cilia flagella and mitotic spindle
        • Accessory proteins for motility
        • Maintains cell shape
        • Average diameter is 20nm
      • Intermediate filaments
        • Provide strength and stability to nuclear envelope
        • Different in each type of cell
        • Filamentous - rope like
        • Connect desmosomes via cytokeratins
      • Microfilaments
        • Actin polymers
        • Globular proteins with a helical structure
        • Adhesion and contraction
        • Involved in cell shape and movement
        • Involves accessory proteins e.g. myosin


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