Thomas Wolsey- Rise and Fall

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  • Thomas Wolsey
    • Rise
      • Drive, Determination and effectiveness
        • Woley was trusted to organise expedition to France (1513), did this successfully and gained Kings trust. His hard working nature helped him stand out
      • Born into very humble origins in Ipswich (son of butcher). By 1518 ha become Lord Chancellor and 'Alter Rex'
      • Papal Legate for Life and Lord Chancellor
        • Papal Legate (1518) and for life (1524) made him highest authority in Eng Catholic Church
          • Ecclesiastical and Secular rise to power
        • Lord Chancellor (1518) made him second highest authority in gov
          • Ecclesiastical and Secular rise to power
      • Treaty of London
        • Rise of Francis (1515) and Charles (1516) put Eng in shade
          • Wolsey knew  they needed to take a diplomatic approach to becoming Euro power
            • Treaty of London gave Henry and Wolsey prestige, and showed off Wolseys skill
      • Ability to Predict and fulfil Kings wishes
        • Started off against war, knew it was important aim of Henry's, went against morals to meet Kings desires and be in his favour
      • Domestic Policies
        • Putting measures into place to attack enclosures and engrossing gave Wolsey support from the peasantry in Eng
    • Fall
      • Foreign Policy Failures
        • Henry's grand schemes were dismissed by Charles
        • Wolsey tried to use French alliance (Treaty of Westminster) to try and free Pope from Charles. Charles too dominant so failed
        • Victory for Charles in 1525 (Pavia), 1527 (Rome) and 1529 (Landriano) secured Charles dominance
          • Highlighted the lack of need for Eng
            • Left isolated with no power
      • Divorce
        • As Papal Legate, Wolsey hoped to sidestep the Pope and rule on divorce hearing himself
          • Cardinal Campeggio sent to Eng to stall the divorce. When the hearing finally started, Catherine refused to recognise it and appealed to Rome
        • Wolsey tried to free the Pope from Charles influence by using an alliance with France to renew warfare in Italy to distract Charles. However Charles' power was too strong
        • Wolsey argued that that marriage was invalid because it could not be certain that Catherine had not consummated her marriage to Henry's brother Arthur
      • Reputation
        • Wolsey was very unpopular due to his rise from humble origins. Therefore enemies were quick to help his fall
        • Even after he had fell from favour, he could not stop hoping for comeback. Corresponded with French and Imperial agents
          • Arrested for treason, charged with praemunire, died on the way to trial (29 Nov 1530)
        • Treatment of his enemies (banishing nobility from court 1517-1518) made sure Wolsey had no support
      • Anne Boleyn Faction
        • This was made up of the friends/family of Anne, and those who disliked Wolsey
        • Influenced the King into believing Wolsey was stalling divorce as his loyalties lay with Pope
          • As Wolsey was standing in the way of Henrys aims, he had to go
        • The Privy Chamber and Council split up into those who supported either Anne or Wolsey
        • Wolsey appointed a new Abbess of WIlton in 1528, over Anne's choice, which cause a huge argument between Wolsey and Henry


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