Theories of Offending

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  • Theories of Offending
    • Physiological Approaches
      • Lombrosso - Atavistic Theory
        • Offenders are a separate species - primitive genetic form.
          • Criminals are BORN that way.
        • Offenders have distinctive phsyical anomalies.
          • Broad, large nose, extra hair etc.
      • Sheldon - Somatotypes
        • Proposed 3 different body shapes: Ectomorph, Endomorph, Mesomorph.
          • Mesomorphs = muscular, aggressive traits, more likely to be criminals
    • PsychD Approaches
      • Behaviour is unconsciously driven.
        • Imbalance in Tripartite Personality. Inadequate Superego - Id is unconstrained
          • This comes from our parents - resolution of Oedipus and Electra
      • Defence Mechanisms
        • Crime is cathartic - allows a release.
    • Learning Theories
      • Criminality is learnt like all other behaviour
      • Empahise role of family, peers, TV etc.
      • Sutherland Differential Association Theory
      • Bandura SLT! - Bobo Doll Study
      • Attention Retention Motivation Self Efficacy Reproducti-on
      • Williams - TV study
    • Eysenck's Personality Approach
      • Personality is the root cause of offending.
        • Extraversion - Introversion
        • Neurotic - Stable
      • Neurotic Extrovert is most likely to be a criminal
        • N = unpredictable and highly emotional
        • Extrovert = sensation/risk seeking
      • Linked to our Nervous system
        • E = caused by RAS - inhibition. Need for external stimulation
        • N = overactive ANS - reacts quickly and strongly to stress
      • Rushton and Chrisjohn
      • Cochrane
      • Farrington

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