The Treaty of Versailles

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  • the Treaty of Versailles
    • France
      • Leader: Clemenceau
        • "the tiger"
        • vengeful
        • aims to crush Germany
      • army
        • should be completely dismantled so that she can never threaten France again
      • condition of the country in 1918:
        • 750,000  homes destroyed
        • 1.5 million killed
        • public demands revenge
      • Territory
        • should go to the winners
        • colonies - should be divided between the winners
        • saar - rich in coal and iron. should go to France for industrial reconstrustion
        • Rhineland  - should become an independent state
        • Alsace Lorraine  - stolen from France in the war of 1870. Should now be returned
        • Germany should be broken up altogether
      • Reparations
        • should be massive, to punish Germany
        • used to rebuild industry / homes and pay debts to USA
        • 200 billion pounds
      • War guilt
        • blame Germany
      • The league of Nations
        • attitude - waste of time
        • Germany should not be allowed to join at all as she is evil.
        • should be used as a way of enforcing the Treaty of Versailles
    • Britain
      • League of Nations
        • attitude - indifferent
        • Germany can join when proven to be peace-loving
        • good way of preserving peace
      • territory
        • should go to the winners
        • colonies - should be divided between the winners
        • Germany should not be smashed into pieces - needs to recover as a tading partner
      • army
        • should be reduced, but not so much that she is unable to defend herself against France
        • her navy should never threaten the British Empire again
      • condition of the country in 1918
        • 1 million killed
        • public demands : hang the kaiser!
      • reparations
        • should be reasonable, to allow Germany to recover as a trading partner
        • used to pay war pensions and pay debts to USA
      • Leader: Lloyd George
        • Welsh Wizard
        • pragmatic
        • aims to rebuild Germany as trading partner
        • demands  "just and lasting peace"
      • war guilt
        • blame Germany
    • USA
      • Leader: Wilson
        • god man from the New World
        • idealistic
        • aims to create a new world order based on 14 points
      • condition of the country in 1918
        • only joined the war in 1916
        • public demands : isolationism
      • War guilt
        • blame Germany
      • Territory
        • self determination through a vote
        • this vote is called a plebiscite
        • colonies should become mandates
      • Reparations
        • should be minimal so that Germany would not want revenge
        • 22 billion pounds
      • army
        • should  be dismantled by all countries.
        • this is the only way to preserve world peace and avoid another arms race
      • League of Nations
        • attitude  - obsessed
        • point 14
        • Germany can join when proven to be peace loving
    • Actual terms of the Treaty
      • territory : Germany lost
        • her colonial empire - shared amongst the winners
        • Alsace-Lorraine  - which had 755 of Germany;s iron resources - given to France
        • The Saar - handed over to the League for 15 years. France to run its coal mines
        • West Prussia - given to Poland so that she could gain access to the sea ( the Polish Corridor) - splits Germany in two
      • reparations
        • actual sum not fixed at Versailles - Germans signed a "blank cheque"
        • settled at 6.6 billion pounds in 1921
      • War  guilt
        • article 231  - Germany was held wholly to blame for the war
      • army
        • would limited to 100,000 men
        • conscription banned
        • tanks and submarines banned
        • navy limited to 6 warships
        • airforce dismantled
        • Rhineland permanently demilitarised
      • League of Nations
        • seen by Wilson as best means of getting friendship between nations
        • hoped it could settle international disputes in a civilised fashion
        • the first issue dealt with at the conference
  • Leader: Clemenceau
    • "the tiger"
    • vengeful
    • aims to crush Germany
  • first thing to be set up under the Treaty
    • League of Nations
      • attitude  - obsessed
      • point 14
      • Germany can join when proven to be peace loving

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