The Korean War

A mindmap of the Korean War - not too much detail of events but lots of important analysis!!

HideShow resource information
View mindmap
  • The Korean War
    • Why did the war last so long?
      • Neither of the two sides could agree one where the border should be
        • NK wanted it along the 38th parallel but SK wanted it further up - where the UN troops were stationed.
      • There was also a dispute over the prisoners of war
        • Not many of the NK and Chinese POW's wanted to return home so the UN took pity on them
      • Kim could have taken down the whole of SK in 3 weeks if the USA hadn't intervened
        • USA intervention not expected by USSR and NK
      • The Chinese intervention in October 1950 - unexpected by USA
      • Neither side trusted each other -there was a lot of properganda
        • Each side wanted to portray themselves as the winner and the other as the loser
    • Who were the winners and losers of Korea?
      • Korea
        • Successes
          • SK became a highly successful capitalist country
            • Are now a prosperous democracy with a growing middle class
          • NK got to become a communist state
        • Failures
          • 10% of entire population of Korea killed during war
            • 600,000 homes in SK and NK destroyed
          • Population of NK decreased from 9 million to 7 million as many killed and other emigrated
          • Neither SK or NK "won" the Korean peninsula - it remained divided along the same line (mostly)
      • China
        • Successes
          • They proved how powerful they could be
          • They united as a country
          • Aided the spread of communism because they showed they could be strong against the USA.
        • Failures
          • 150,000 troops died and many injured
          • China realised they needed more than man power and motivation to win wars
          • The economic effects on an already poor country were crushing
            • 48% of country's spending was on defence, at one point
          • US hostility for China greater than ever
          • Nationalists in China built up strength during war
      • USA
        • Successes
          • Helped to contain communism to just NK
        • Failures
          • 33,600 US troops died in Korea and over 100,000 wounded.
          • They suffered a humiliating set back when they were pushed back 300 miles by the Chinese
          • They had little home support for  the war and anti communist paranoia increased hugely
          • GNP expenditure on military rose from 4% to 14%
      • Japan
        • Failures
          • Gained enemies in nearby China, Nk and USSR
        • Successes
          • Huge financial gain from US defence spending there
            • Many important companies in Japan such as Toyota
          • By 1954 - Japanese defence industry had earnt $3 billion US dollars
          • Japan developed into a friendly democracy and became a close ally to the USA
            • Signed a security pact with them in 1951
          • All with no soldier losses
    • Who started the Korean War?
      • South Korea
        • Rhee also wanted to unite Korea.
        • in 1949- SK carried out border raids on towns in NK near to the border.
          • This "provoked" NK into invading in 1950.
        • However, the attack on SK was totally unsuspecting suggesting that SK did not provoke the war.
          • NK invasion on SK was a year after the border skirmishes.
      • North Korea
        • Kim wanted to reunite the country.
        • In June 1950 - NK invaded SK.
        • Not the first time Kim had tried to undermine SK. He had previously invited SK's anti-Rhee leaders to NK to discuss reuniting the country behind Rhee's back.
        • Kim relied on aid from the USSR - in 1949 he asked Stalin for permission to invade SK but he said no. He asked again in 1950 and Stalin said yes.
          • Kim had convinced Stalin that the USA would not get involved in the war and that it would be a "walkover".
        • NK's troops and planes outnumbered SK's. This made Kim confident.
      • USA
        • The USA failed to make it clear to the world that SK was important to them.
          • Secretary of State Acheson didn't mention them in his speech of countries important to USA in the Far East.
        • When US troops left SK in 1949- they didn't leave any tanks or artillery or aircraft.
          • The USSR left this for the NK unlike the USA.
      • USSR
        • Invasion by NK would not have happened without Soviet aid.
          • They gave NK T-34 tanks and advanced aircraft.
        • The USSR was more confident in 1950 than 1949 because China was their new communist ally and they had created the atomic bomb.
        • NK were the responsibility of USSR after Korea was split along the 38th parallel. This shows the USSR should not have allowed the war.
          • Kim had to ask Stalin for permission to invade. The war would not have happened if Stalin had said no (like in 1949) as it is unlikely Kim would have invaded without USSR support.
      • China
        • China bordered NK and naturally supported the USSR who were their closest allies.
        • Although they got involved in the war later on- they were not involved in the planning.
    • Why did the USA get so deeply involved in the war?
      • China's involvement
        • The UN forces could have taken NK- China's involvement was unexpected.
          • They changed the angle of the war
        • Chinese forces pushed UN forces back past the 38th parallel and even recaptured Seoul
          • This escalated the war as UN soldiers had to fight back in a war they thought they'd nearly won.
      • Domestic pressures on Truman
        • After Truman's loss of China to communism in 1949
          • He was under pressure from US citizens and MacArthy not to be "soft of communism"
        • Truman was also facing re-election in 1942 and knew that taking a strong stand against communism would make him popular.
          • Congress supported intervention in Korea unanimously.
        • Public support for MacArthur meant Truman didn't sack him until 1952.
          • This meant he was able to invade North Korea which escalated the war because China then got involved.
      • Policy of containment
        • Truman's Doctrine of containment meant that the US vowed to protect any country from the threat of communism
        • There was the threat that if Korea fell to communism - this could threaten Japan.
          • USA good allies with Japan and one of the top 5 most important economies in the world
  • Who started the Korean War?
    • South Korea
      • Rhee also wanted to unite Korea.
      • in 1949- SK carried out border raids on towns in NK near to the border.
        • This "provoked" NK into invading in 1950.
      • However, the attack on SK was totally unsuspecting suggesting that SK did not provoke the war.
        • NK invasion on SK was a year after the border skirmishes.
    • North Korea
      • Kim wanted to reunite the country.
      • In June 1950 - NK invaded SK.
      • Not the first time Kim had tried to undermine SK. He had previously invited SK's anti-Rhee leaders to NK to discuss reuniting the country behind Rhee's back.
      • Kim relied on aid from the USSR - in 1949 he asked Stalin for permission to invade SK but he said no. He asked again in 1950 and Stalin said yes.
        • Kim had convinced Stalin that the USA would not get involved in the war and that it would be a "walkover".
      • NK's troops and planes outnumbered SK's. This made Kim confident.
    • USA
      • The USA failed to make it clear to the world that SK was important to them.
        • Secretary of State Acheson didn't mention them in his speech of countries important to USA in the Far East.
      • When US troops left SK in 1949- they didn't leave any tanks or artillery or aircraft.
        • The USSR left this for the NK unlike the USA.
    • USSR
      • Invasion by NK would not have happened without Soviet aid.
        • They gave NK T-34 tanks and advanced aircraft.
      • The USSR was more confident in 1950 than 1949 because China was their new communist ally and they had created the atomic bomb.
      • NK were the responsibility of USSR after Korea was split along the 38th parallel. This shows the USSR should not have allowed the war.
        • Kim had to ask Stalin for permission to invade. The war would not have happened if Stalin had said no (like in 1949) as it is unlikely Kim would have invaded without USSR support.
    • China
      • China bordered NK and naturally supported the USSR who were their closest allies.
      • Although they got involved in the war later on- they were not involved in the planning.
  • Policy of containment
    • Truman's Doctrine of containment meant that the US vowed to protect any country from the threat of communism
    • There was the threat that if Korea fell to communism - this could threaten Japan.
      • USA good allies with Japan and one of the top 5 most important economies in the world

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar History resources:

See all History resources »See all America - 19th and 20th century resources »